FIGURE 10.26. Measurement data in the AOA EOA plane [9,10]. (Reprinted with permission # 2002 IEEE in .NET

Draw QR Code JIS X 0510 in .NET FIGURE 10.26. Measurement data in the AOA EOA plane [9,10]. (Reprinted with permission # 2002 IEEE
FIGURE 10.26. Measurement data in the AOA EOA plane [9,10]. (Reprinted with permission # 2002 IEEE
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FIGURE 10.27. Joint PDF distribution in AOA EOA plane.
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along LOS direction) are presented in Figure 10.27, and Figures 10.28a (2D-case) and 10.28b (3D-case), respectively. These results explain the over-rooftop propagation (in our examples RX antenna is at the rooftop level) experimentally observed in References [9,10]. It means that the light of the buildings, which are placed in the closest receiver area, de ne the elevation angles of the arrival at the RX antenna. In addition, a signi cant number of arrivals spread around the elevation angle of zero are observed, when there is the guiding effect in the azimuth domain. The guiding effect may be explained by the multiple re ections of rays passing through the street canyon, as observed in References [9,10]. It is clearly seen from Figures 10.28a and 10.28b that the main signal energy arrives at the receiver after diffraction caused by the right-side buildings (with respect to TX), localized at the azimuth range of 20 30 (for the range of elevation angles of 0 10 ). These results are in good agreement with measurements [9,10], according to which the effects of diffraction from the building blocks located in the right side (from TX) are predominant. The distance between these buildings is about 350 400 meters from RX2 that corresponds to time delay spread of 1:2 1:3 ms. These buildings are located 25 30 from the location of the transmitter in the azimuth plane (see Fig. 10.13). Comparison with Ray Tracing Model. Let us now analyze and compare the theoretical approach proposed above with the results of the VPL ray-tracing algorithm
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FIGURE 10.28. The simulated power spectrum, W y; j , (a) in 2D (b) and 3D plane.
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FIGURE 10.29. Aalborg University as a microcell environment. (Source [67]: Reprinted with permission # 2001 IEEE)
[46,66], which were compared with AOA measurements made at Aalborg University, Denmark [67]. We also compare our results with those from the Reference [67]. Let us introduce an urban scene in Figure 10.29 according to Reference [67]. The area comprises of several buildings connected by glass-covered bridges and walkways. The buildings are two-story high, about 8 m. The TX antenna is omnidirectional in the azimuth plane and it is located 4 m above the ground. The RX antenna has 3-dB beamwidth in both polarizations and it is located on the ground level. There is no LOS between the TX and RX antennas. The TX RX distance is about 100 m. The measurements were made using 80-MHz wide band channel sounder at a carrier frequency of 1.845 GHz. The following parameters, extracted from Figure 10.29, describe the urban scene. The parameters g0 3, n 50, l 0:16, w 0:5, and d 0:1 de ne the results of the stochastic model (10.16) (10.30) simulation presented in Figure 10.30 compared against the measurement results [67], and against the VPL model prediction [46,66]. There is a good t between the measured the VPL predicted and the proposed model simulated results. However, the stochastic model shows better agreement achieved in the azimuth range of 0 to 40 , where VPL prediction results differ from the measured data. Thus, the difference between measurements and VPL-model prediction can achieve in this range of upto 30%, whereas the stochastic model predicts with accuracy 95% the experimental data. Comparing the VPL model, the stochastic model simulation, and the measured data results, we have found that the stochastic model gives better prediction over the entire range of the considered points (from 80 to 80 ). The mean error, with respect to the measured data, equals 0.16 for our model simulation and 0.3 for the results based on VPL technique, that is, our model in these ranges is twice as precise. Next we present some important simulation results that de ne the joint distribution of AOA and TOA at the receiver. We analyze the distribution using the results presented separately for AOA in References [9,10], and using the built-up terrain data presented in Reference [67]. In Figure 10.31, from the concentration of rays near the direction of the two streets, which are placed between 40 and 0 ,
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