FIGURE 7.15. Continued in .NET

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FIGURE 7.15. Continued
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FIGURE 7.16. (a) RMS of signal intensity phase uctuations (in radians) versus mean square fractional uctuations of plasma density (normalized by the mean ionization density of 1012 m 3 ) for frequencies of 10, 32 and 60 GHz, for a spectral index of p0 3 (corresponded to perturbed mid latitude ionosphere above USA) and zenith angle of 10 . The outer scale (thickness) of ionospheric layer is 100 km, the ionospheric height is 200 km. (b) The same as in Fig. 7.16a, but for satellite zenith angle of 45 . (c) The same as in Fig. 7.16a, but for satellite zenith angle of 80 . 287
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IONOSPHERIC RADIO PROPAGATION
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FIGURE 7.16. Continued
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FIGURE 7.17 (a) RMS of signal intensity phase uctuations (in radians) versus mean square fractional uctuations of plasma density for frequencies of 10, 32 and 60 GHz, for a spectral index p0 4 (corresponded to perturbed polar ionosphere above Alaska) and for satellite zenith angle of 10 . The outer scale (i.e., thickness) of ionospheric layer is 100 km, and the ionospheric height is 200 km. The mean ionization density is 1012 m 3 , on which the horizontal axis is normalized. (b) The same as in Fig. 7.17a, but for a satellite zenith angle of 45 . (c) The same as in Fig. 7.17a, but for a satellite zenith angle of 80 . 289
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FIGURE 7.17. Continued
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from ionospheric irregularities is observed. Finally, for a given ionization density, when the zenith angle w became larger, the effect of signal phase and amplitude uctuations became stronger. the analysis of eld intensity by use of the perturbation method, as well as the scintillation index was done for various values of the spectral index. In addition, a distinction was made between weak scattering, $ h F 2 i 10 1 , 1, and strong scattering, $ h F 2 i 100, namely;  For a given frequency, an increase in the spectral index causes an increase in the intensity uctuations.  For a given frequency, an increase in phase uctuation, causes an increase in the intensity of uctuations.  The behavior of the spectrum of signal intensity uctuations in the frequency domain is of exponential type.
7.3. BACK AND FORWARD SCATTERING OF RADIO WAVES BY SMALL-SCALE IONOSPHERIC INHOMOGENEITIES In previous sections we considered effects of large- and small-scale ionospheric inhomogeneities on radio propagation through the ionosphere mostly for the
BACK AND FORWARD SCATTERING OF RADIO WAVES
purpose of land satellite communication problems. As was shown in References [44 49], scattering at large angles, up to 180 , occurs at the male-scale inhomogeneities oriented along the ambient geomagnetic eld. This effect is actually for HF/VHF-band radio propagation (1 MHz < f < 100 MHz), for which all characteristic scales of plasma inhomogeneities are at the same order or smaller than the wavelength, that is l l. In other words, this effect is actual for over-horizon radar applications due to re ections from the ionosphere, or for long-range radio propagation due to scattering in the inhomogeneous ionosphere. All these effects are very actual for an investigation of radar echoes caused by back and forward scattering from small-scale ionospheric inhomogeneities [44,45] and for creation of HF/VHF-radio wave communication channels due to forward scattering from small-scale magnetic eld oriented nonisotropic ionospheric inhomogeneities (called the HE -irregularities [46 48]). 7.3.1. Effects of Back and Forward Scattering The theory of back scattering of radio waves by nonisotropic ionospheric irregularities was created by Booker [44,45] for the purpose of radiolocation and radar applications, which we brie y present below. The geometry of the problem is presented in Figure 7.18. The coordinate system is located at the point O inside the scattering volume V consisting of small-scale nonisotropic inhomogeneities. Let us consider that the transmitter is located at the point P1 and the receiver is at the point P2 . Thus the eld of the radio wave, E0 , in the point O1 from the transmitter with