IONOSPHERIC RADIO PROPAGATION in .NET

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IONOSPHERIC RADIO PROPAGATION
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the results obtained in References [29 41] and will generalize some theoretical   1=2 on the bottom boundary of the results. Calculations of phase uctuations F2 1 ionospheric layer with inhomogeneities for various radio frequencies and for  2 2 different plasma density uctuations N1 =N0 1=2 will be given in section 7.3.3. The p 2 one-dimensional spectra of plasma density disturbances U N K x $ K x for 0 various extinction parameters in exponent, p p 2, will also be given.Further  1=2 and more, the index of scintillation s2 as a function of phase uctuations F2 1 I of parameter p0 will be analyzed, because it characterizes the power of ionospheric inhomogeneities and is de ned as dispersion of the radio wave intensity variations. 7.2.3. Scattering Phenomena Caused by Small-Scale Inhomogeneities As was mentioned in the previous section, when radio waves are propagated through an irregular ionosphere, small-angle scattering causes what is known as scintillation of signal strength or intensity. In such phenomena, a distinction can be drawn between diffractive scattering from small-scale irregularities and refractive scattering from large-scale irregularities. The same phenomena are observed in troposphere, caused by large-scale and small-scale turbulent gaseous structures (see Section 6.3). We put the same question as was done in the previous chapter on how we can separate these effects as well as the inhomogeneities that caused them. For a given location in the medium of terminal antennas, the transmitter and receiver, a Fresnel scale, dF , is the parameter which can give the corresponding separation. According to the de nition above, it depends on the wavelength and the coordinate locations of the source and the observer. In such an assumption, diffractive scattering is caused by irregularities whose scale is less than the Fresnel scale. Diffractive scattering of electromagnetic waves by a scintillation medium is described in References [34,41]. Refractive scattering involves irregularities whose scale is greater than the local Fresnel scale [31]. In order to present the effect of refractive and diffractive scattering, the thin phase changing screen model (see Fig. 7.8) of the scintillation medium was introduced by Booker [31,34,41]. Such a model replaces weak multiple scattering by strong single scattering in a way that enables us to understand the relation between diffractive and refractive scattering in scintillation phenomena. Main Parameters of the Problem. The phase changing screen model has the following characteristic parameters: a) phase changing screen representing the ionospheric F-region. As tropospheric gaseous turbulent structures (see Section 6.3), the ionospheric plasma inhomogeneities are characterized by the following parameters:   mean square uctuation of phase F 2  F2 ; 1 outer scale L0 ; inner scale l0 . b) reception plane representing the surface of the Earth (see Fig. 7.8).
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EFFECTS OF THE INHOMOGENEOUS IONOSPHERE ON RADIO PROPAGATION
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The spectrum of intensity uctuation is created and obtained in the reception plane. At the same time, to determine physical processes that accompany radio wave propagation through the inhomogeneous ionosphere we must compare the outer scale of irregular ionospheric region with the Fresnel scale de ned as dF lZ=2p 1=2 , where Z is the distance from the screen to the reception plane and l is the wavelength. In References [31,34,41] it was assumed that the RMS uctuation   1=2 is large compared with one radian. Moreover, in 1D-case of of phase F2 1 ionospheric layer presented in Figure 7.8, as follows from (7.73), the power spectrum of phase uctuations S k is proportional to k p , when k ) 1=L0 and p is referred to as the spectral index. For a practical scintillation medium, the latter parameter p is de ned as the spectral index that is observed in any measurements of phase uctuations along a straight line. For the ionosphere, it is also the spectral index that is observed when the source is at the satellite moving above the ionosphere in a straight line. Usually, in literature, the spectral index p is determined as one integer greater than that observed when measurements of the average refractive index hni are made along a straight line in the medium with scintillations, that is, p hni 1 [29 41]. At the same time, the spectral index p is one integer less than that obtained by analyzing uctuations of phase made over an area rather than along a line. Observed values of the spectral index p range from about 2 to 4, with values between about 2.5 and 3.5 being most common [31,34 37,41]. The smaller values of p are found when the scintillation phenomenon is strong. Let us also de ne the expression F 2 S k as the power spectrum of phase uctuations, where F 2 is the mean square uctuation of phase, and S k is the phase spectra. The corresponding autocorrelation function r x is obtained by inverse Fourier transformation of S k (see Section 7.2.2). Tables 7.2 to 7.3 present the values of S k and the corresponding autocorrelation functions r x obtained in Reference [41]. Now, to differentiate the effects of refractive scattering from large-scale irregularities and diffraction scattering from small-scale irregularities and to analyse the signi cant roles in the physical processes, in addition to the earlier introduced outer scale L0 , the inner scale l0 , and the Fresnel scale dF , additional parameters following References [31,34,35] were introduced. They are: the lenses scale lL , the focal scale lF , and the peak scale lP . The lens scale, lL , is de ned as the size of the inhomogeneity in the phase changing screen [31,34,41]. An array of optical foci is produced in a plane parallel to the screen at distance Z. These foci lie in the reception plane at a distance Z if Z from which we get lL  1=2 lZ 2 F 2 1=4 2p 7:91b l2 L l= 2p 2 F 2 1=2 7:91a
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