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A radio antenna, transmitting or receiving, is an independent and yet integral component of any wireless communication system. An antenna acts as a transducer that converts the current or voltage generated by the feeding-based circuit, such as a transmission line, a waveguide or coaxial cable, into electromagnetic eld energy propagating through space and vice versa. In free space, the elds propagate in the form of spherical waves, whose amplitudes are inversely proportional to their distance from the antenna. Each radio signal can be represented as an electromagnetic wave [1], that propagates along a given direction. The wave eld strength, its polarization, and the direction of propagation determine the main characteristics of an antenna operation. Antennas can be divided in different categories, such as wire antennas, aperture antennas, re ector antennas, frequency independent antennas, horn antennas, printed and conformal antennas, and so forth [2 10]. When applications require radiation characteristics that cannot be met by a single radiating antenna, multiple elements are employed forming array antennas. Arrays can produce the desired radiation characteristics by appropriately exciting each individual element with certain amplitudes and phases. The very same antenna array con gurations, when combined with signal processing, lead to multiple-beam (switched beam) or adaptive antennas that offer many more degrees of freedom in a wireless system design than using a single antenna [11 14]. The subject antenna arrays, including adaptive arrays, will be studied in detail in 9. In this chapter, we introduce the basic concepts of antennas and some fundamental gures of merit, such as radiation patterns, directivity, gain, polarization loss, and so on, that describe the performance of any antenna.
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Radio Propagation and Adaptive Antennas for Wireless Communication Links: Terrestrial, Atmospheric and Ionospheric, by Nathan Blaunstein and Christos Christodoulou Copyright # 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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FIGURE 2.1. Spherical coordinate system for antenna analysis purposes. A very short dipole is shown with its no-zero eld component directions.
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2.1. RADIATION PATTERN The radiation pattern of any antenna is de ned as the relative distribution of electromagnetic energy or power in space. Because antennas are an integral part of all telecommunication systems, the radiation pattern is determined in the far- eld region where no change in pattern with distance occurs. Figure 2.1 shows that if we place an antenna at the origin of a spherical coordinate system, the radiation properties of the antenna will depend only on the angles f and y along a path or surface of constant radius. A trace of the radiated (or received) power at a xed radius is known as a power pattern, whereas the spatial variation of the electric eld along the same radius is called the amplitude eld pattern. Although a 3-D visualization of an antenna radiation pattern is helpful, usually, a couple of plots of the pattern as a function of y, for some particular values of f, plus a couple of plots as a function of f, for some particular values of y, give suf cient information. For example, Figure 2.2(a) depicts the 3-D radiation pattern from an ideal or very short dipole. Figure 2.2(b) shows the xy-plane (azimuthal plane, y p=2 , called the principal E-plane cut, and Figure 2.2(c) is the xz-plane (elevation plane, f 0) called the principal H-plane cut. A typical antenna power pattern is shown in Figure 2.3. The upper part depicts a normalized polar radiation pattern in linear, whereas the bottom gure is actually the same pattern but in rectangular coordinates and in dB scale. The radiation pattern of the antenna consists of various parts, which are known as lobes. The main lobe (also known as main beam or major lobe) is the lobe containing the direction of maximum radiation. In the case of Figure 2.3 the main lobe is pointing in the y 0 direction. Antennas can have more than one major lobe.
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