IONOSPHERIC RADIO PROPAGATION in .NET

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If N0 (Z) is an average concentration in the ionospheric level and N1 Z is a disturbed density caused by the plasma inhomogeneities, then the left part of (7.46a) can be rewritten as e 1 e X; Y; Z 1 e0 e1 e e0 e2 N0 Z =me o2 e0 e e1 e2 N1 Z =me o2 e0 e 7:46b
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In the absence of inhomogeneities, the height of the re ection point (turning point) Z0m is a function of coordinates X and Y, and the thickness of the re ected layer is de ned from vertical oscillations of equal electron density level (from mean square deviation of the turning point from the height Z0m ). Thus, even weak large-scale inhomogeneities also increase the thickness of the re ecting layer. The radio wave trajectory due to horizontal changes of the screen height has a complex oscillatory character. If the frequency of the ionospheric layer is f0 , radio wave re ection can occur for frequencies f > f0 cosec y0 and radio wave penetration for frequencies f < f0 cosec y0 . The rst condition shows the possibility of radio wave communication for frequencies more than the maximum useful frequency. The second condition shows the possibility to re ect and scatter radio waves with frequencies f < f0 cosec y0 . Radio Waves with Frequency x > xpe . Now some effects of large-scale inhomogeneities for radio waves with frequency o > ope are presented, where ope is a plasma frequency of the ionospheric layer de ned above. Let us suppose, as in References [11,12], that the wave propagates vertically down and passes through the layer with an inhomogeneous density. After passing the layer at the height Z0 the phase F of the wave will be a function of the horizontal coordinate X (see Fig. 7.7, according to References [11,12]). F X1 o R X1 c 7:48
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It can be seen that inhomogeneities are stretched along the Y-axis and N1 does not depend on Y. For radio frequencies with o > ope , e0 $ 1 and R X1 $ e2 N1 X1 m e o 2 e0 7:49
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EFFECTS OF THE INHOMOGENEOUS IONOSPHERE ON RADIO PROPAGATION
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FIGURE 7.7. Penetration of radio waves through the sinusoidal ionospheric layer.
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where N1 X1 N1 X1 ; Z dz 7:50
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A ray passing through the layer at the point X1 changes its trajectory from the vertical axis by the angle y y c @F @R1 o @X1 @X1 7:51
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and comes to the Earth s surface at the point X X1 Z0 tan y 7:52
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If the wave amplitude at the height Z0 is equal to A Z0 , then from the law of energy conservation in the ray tube with scale dX, it follows that jA Z0 j2 dX1 jA Z 0 j2 dX 7:53
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From Equations (7.52) and (7.53) the wave amplitude at the Earth s surface is found to be   dX1 1=2    jA Z0 j  jA Z 0 j jA Z0 j 2   dX  1 Z0 d R1   2 dX 7:54
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IONOSPHERIC RADIO PROPAGATION
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If d2 R1 =dX 2 > 0, then A 0 < A Z0 , there is a defocusing effect; whereas, when d2 R1 dX 2 < 0, then A 0 > A Z0 there is a focusing effect. The same effects occur in the troposphere (see 6). The phase of the wave passing through the layer in the point X1 and reaching the point X on the Earth s surface (Fig. 7.7) is F X; X1 F0 o Z0 sec y X1 1 c 7:55
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where F0 is the wave phase in the absence of inhomogeneities. The rays come from different points to the point X on the layer boundary. The difference of ray phases 0 between the points X1 and X1 observed at the point X of the Earth s surface is [11,12]
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