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medieval, and even modern interest rates. The authors hope this history will encourage such research. No doubt the scarcity of reliable data is a reason why historians have not compiled universal histories of interest rates. Nevertheless, it should be useful to proceed now by collating and reviewing the material that is available to us even though some of it will be changed. There is no doubt that the record here presented can, and will, be improved by further research. The earlier rates quoted are almost all derived from books on history or economics, and the modern rates are mostly derived from official sources. Original sources loan contracts, surviving securities, and the like usually have not been reexamined. Thus, the economic historian will not find new material in this book. He or she will find familiar material summarized and reorganized to isolate the history of just one type of variable the rate of interest on loans. POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC BACKGROUND Most of the chapters in this history are introduced by subsections that summarize the political and economic events and financial customs at the time and place for which the interest rates are quoted. It is hoped thereby to place the rates and the credit forms to which they were attached in context and to make them understandable. Much of the ancient and medieval background material is controversial. While financial and economic history is constantly being debated, revised, and improved by modern historians, the authors have nowhere attempted to burden the reader with these controversies or to improve upon the texts that provide the background. The reader should be warned, however, that little is certain about early interest rates or early financial usages. Great gaps will be evident in the background history, as in the history of interest rates themselves. Why are several centuries of Hellenistic Greece described in one paragraph, whereas several pages are devoted to one earlier century of Athenian supremacy The answer is twofold: First, developmental periods require and deserve detailed description, whereas ensuing periods are likely to be repetitious. Second, the sources themselves apportion far more space to periods of financial development than they do to subsequent, longer periods of repetitious activity. Nevertheless, there are many periods that seem to deserve fuller treatment than this history has been able to provide. The gaps, such as the later Greek, the later Roman, the Byzantine, and the early Dutch periods will some day be filled in. The authors choice of background material is not intended to espouse any one of the many theories that undertake to explain interestrate trends. However, they have not avoided the selection of background
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facts that might seem to support one or another of these theories. Major wars, price-level trends and currency conditions, for example, are mentioned because they are often considered relevant. The coincidence of events is occasionally pointed out.
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Our earth is degenerate in these latter days; bribery and corruption are common; children no longer obey their parents; every man wants to write a book, and the end of the world is evidently approaching. From an ancient Assyrian tablet.
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This book was originally written because the late Sidney Homer s long search for a history of interest rates was unsuccessful. It seemed incredible to him that comprehensive histories of this universal and basic economic and commercial price did not exist. Sidney Homer s search for a history of modern interest rates arose from the practical requirements of business in Wall Street. This was, and still is, vitally concerned day by day with prevailing rates of interest on many sorts of obligations and their fluctuations. Present rates and trends become more comprehensible when compared with past rates and past trends. All markets have historical characteristics that deserve study even though the findings of an individual scholar may eventually be modified. In the 1930 s, when Mr. Homer started this collection of interest rates, short-term American market rates of interest were well reported. But many bond-yield averages were faulty: They combined too wide a variety of qualities and terms. Therefore, he began original research on the history of American bond yields. Subsequently, the science of averaging improved, and several excellent new yield averages became available. The old averages, however, were still widely used and served to distort the history of the markets. Even today, the task of correctly picturing levels and trends of past and present American bond yields is far from completed. Also evident was the fact that American interest rates did not move in isolation from interest rates in the rest of the world in spite of the breakdown in the international gold standard. In the 1930 s, while gold was pouring into the United States and apparently depressing our interest rates to low levels, interest rates were also declining in most of those countries that were being drained of their gold reserves. The great money market of London deserved attention. A glance revealed a rich history of a market not too different in structure from our own that antedated ours by at least a hundred years. Therefore, working always backward, Mr. Homer carried this collection of rates of interest across the Atlantic and moved it back to 1752, the date when British consols were floated.
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