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on a firm foundation. (460) By 1824 the 5% rentes sold at a premium and debt refunding at lower interest rates was begun. The 1820 s were a period of prosperity and growth. The value of a seat on the Paris Bourse rose from 30,000 francs to 850,000 francs between 1816, when it was reorganized, and 1830. Except for canalcompany stocks, however, there were few company shares listed. Trading was largely in government securities. The people still preferred to invest in land or in government rentes. They distrusted industrial securities, banks, and bank notes. From 1827 to 1832 there was a period of business depression, in the midst of which occurred the Revolution of 1830. (461) From 1833 to 1837 there was rising prosperity, railroad construction, the formation of many companies, and a great increase in securities listed on the Bourse. In 1837 there occurred a collapse; the price of railroad securities dropped sharply, but the price of rentes continued to rise. Prosperity returned in 1842. Railroad construction reached boom proportions in 1845 with huge speculation on the Bourse. In 1846 a series of crises began with crop failures and led to unemployment, the first increase in the discount rate at the Bank of France since 1820, financial stringency, a sharp fall in the price of rentes, and finally the Europewide revolutions of 1848. Under the Second Empire, 1852 1870, prosperity returned. Rentes recovered and the discount rate was for the first time dropped below 4%. Many measures were taken to improve the availability of credit to smaller entrepreneurs, such as the establishment of a land bank, the Cr dit Foncier, in 1852. French trade doubled between 1851 and 1870. (462) There was another crisis in 1857 which again embarrassed the railroads and which was accompanied by a brief excursion of the discount rate up to 8%, but it had a very small effect on the market for rentes. Financial stringency recurred in 1864. However, the rentes were not importantly depressed until the disastrous defeat of 1870 1871; this was followed by a few years of very high interest rates. After 1872 the last three decades of the century saw stability, peace and the same remarkable decline in interest rates which occurred in England and in most other industrial countries. There were periods of hard times, such as 1883 and 1896, but no financial crisis, no very high discount rates, and no depressed markets for rentes. This was for all Europe a period of growth and of nationalism; it was an age of steel and mass production. Industrially, France ended the century far behind England, but France was catching up rapidly. Germany and the United States, however, were catching up even more rapidly. Commodity prices in France followed a pattern similar to those in England. They declined from 1820 to 1850, rose to 1856, and then declined almost steadily to a new low in 1896. They ended the century far below their wartime levels of the first decades.
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LONG-TERM INTEREST RATES Long-term French interest rates opened the nineteenth century at very high levels and closed it at very low levels. In between, however, their course was extremely erratic: the declining trend was frequently interrupted by brief returns to very high rates. While in England and in Holland the development of low mid-nineteenth-century interest rates was a reversion to rates that had prevailed at times in earlier centuries, for France these low rates were a novelty. French rentiers who remembered a long tradition of 5% rentes gradually, however, became accustomed to 4% and finally to 3%. The French rentes were similar in structure to the British consols and to the earlier Dutch annuities. All three were direct descendants of the medieval census annuities. These contracts all undertook to provide an income to the creditor at a fixed rate. The debtor retained the right to redeem eventually but made no promise ever to do so. Probably over those long centuries, when interest rates were often declining from very high levels, continuity of income was exactly what creditors wanted. The modern uniform French rente probably can be dated from 1793 when the Great Book of the Public Debt was created, in which were inscribed all the valid loans and in which were recorded the many confusing titles to rentes. (463) Uniformity and legality of claim were thus assured. However, the unhappy rentiers were, in 1793, still being paid in depreciated assignats. Rentiers lost all confidence. In 1797 the 5% rentes were quoted between 61 8 and 361 8 francs per 100 francs face value. In 1799 the debt was consolidated into 5% rentes. These were then quoted at 143 4 to provide a current yield of about 34% if paid. The budget was put in order and the Caisse d Amortissement was reestablished to service the debt. In 1800 the Bank of France was organized, and a metallic currency was restored. By 1801 the rentes were up to a high of 68 to yield 7.35%. For the years from 1797 to the present time there exists at least one, and sometimes several, series of market quotations on various French rentes. By the means of these quotations the fluctuations from year to year in these market rates of long-term interest on government credit can be approximated. There were and are, however, many issues of rentes outstanding, and their terms varied greatly. No one series always provided a representative picture of the level of long-term French interest rates in the manner usually provided for Britain by the British consols. Table 25 contains prices and current yields of the two most important series of nineteenth-century rentes stated in terms of annual averages and annual high and low prices. These yields are pictured on Chart 13, together with the yields on new issues of rentes from Table 26. Chart 12 pictures decennial average yields. At the beginning of the century the quoted debt consisted entirely of 5% rentes. In 1824 some 41 2% rentes were created at a price of 100 and some
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