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Table 21 New Sterling Issues by Colonial Governments (449)
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Table 22 New Sterling Issues by Foreign Governments (449, 450)
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to pay 40% to meet a pressing liability. (452) Farmers were reported borrowing at rates as high as 50%. (453) SHORT-TERM INTEREST RATES Short-term market rates of interest of the sort quoted on prime commercial bills also declined during the nineteenth century, but their decline followed a different pattern from that of long-term prime interest rates. By mid-century, these short rates were at times much higher, and at other times much lower than they were during the early wartime decades. Toward the end of the century, these short rates averaged much lower than they did at the start of the century or at mid-century, but every few years, at least, they would rise for a while to levels far above the uniform 5% legal limit of the Napoleonic Wars. The trend of quotations on short rates was influenced not only by supply and demand in the money market, but also by two other factors the repeal of the usury law and the evolution of monetary policy. The 5% limit of the usury law applied to bank rate and to the entire bill market until 1833. This law prevented quoted short rates from rising to the high levels that probably would otherwise have prevailed much of the time during the Napoleonic Wars. The 5% limit did not apply to government loans or to the market rate on consols, which was often above 5% before 1817. Discount houses were allowed to add commissions to the standard 5% rate, and thus effective rates of 51 2 or 6% often were charged during the war period. (454) However, no official market quotations were recorded above 5% during the entire period 1714 1833 when the 5% legal limit was in force. Thus, the record does not reveal a true market rate of short-term interest until 1817, when quotations fell below the legal limit. A deliberate monetary policy through manipulation of bank rate was unknown in the eighteenth century. It was impossible until the exemption of short bills from the usury laws in 1833. It was first attempted in 1839. Thereafter, the reserves were defended or trade was promoted more and more deliberately by changes in bank rate. By the 1850 s bank rate was put up as high as 7 10% in emergencies and then quickly depressed to 2 3%. The legal restrictions early in the century, their subsequent removal, and later the vigorous use of very high and very low bank rates help to explain the pattern of short-term market rate of interest in Britain during the nineteenth century. Chart 9 below reveals stability followed by increasing volatility and a great bulge at mid-century. After 1866, however, a declining trend is evident, even allowing for occasional high rates. In the final decade, the open market discount rate was usually below 2% and fell below 1%. With the funds yielding less than 21 2%, the British had indeed achieved Dutch finance.
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Table 23 shows the fluctuations of bank rate throughout this century, including the annual average rate and the annual extremes of fluctuation. The table provides the same data for the open-market rate of discount for first-class commercial bills. These were bills of nonuniform maturity of a few months before 1855; thereafter, they were uniformly three-month bills. Decennial averages are also provided for convenience in discerning longer-term trends, and these are pictured in Chart 6 on page 179. Toward the end of the century, call loans became increasingly important. Loans at call were made by banks overnight to dealers in commercial bills and were secured by a part of the dealer s bill portfolio. Both lender and borrower could at their convenience terminate the loan on the following day. Thus, a very economical and flexible medium was provided for all participants in the money market, permitting a rapid investment and recovery of temporary balances. As would be expected, the call loan rates were very volatile and often fell far below the open market rate of discount. The open-market rate of discount in its turn was usually below bank rate. Bank rate had become a penalty rate set by the lender of last resort. The history of bank rate and the history of the market rate of discount on bills provide a sufficient picture of the trends of short-term money rates of interest in nineteenth-century Britain. There were, however, many other forms of short-term credit and many diverse rates of interest charged and paid. The table below includes a number of rates associated with the banking system and with good credits. Its data are for three selected years: 1890, the year of highest market rates for this easy money decade; 1895, the year of lowest market rates for this decade and for this century; and 1900, a year when market rates had risen substantially from their lows. Table 24 reveals a wide range of fluctuation for almost all these rates. An exception was the rate paid on deposits in English towns. All rates in country towns were more stable than city rates and were generally higher. Call Loan Rates: Monthly Averages
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