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THE NATIONAL DEBT The British national debt remained essentially a war debt. The history of its size during two centuries is summarized in political terms in the accompanying table. During this entire period most of the national debt was funded. The composition of the debt in 1882, tabulated on page 187, illustrates the principles of debt management used. Englishmen in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries were as alarmed by the size of their national debt as are many Englishmen and Americans today. Other countries had been relieved by inflation and bankruptcy of much of the burden of debt, but the victorious English, proud of their credit and dependent on confidence and on imports, probably considered no such alternatives. Thomas Babington Macaulay in 1885 commented eloquently on the fears inspired by the national debt: (442)
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At every stage in the growth of that debt the nation has set up the same cry of anguish and despair. [After the Peace of Utrecht] the nation owed about fifty millions; and that debt was considered, not merely by . . . fox-hunting squires . . . but by profound thinkers, as an incumbrance which would permanently cripple the body politic. Nevertheless . . . the nation [became] richer and richer.
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Size of the British National Debt (441)
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Then came the war of the Austrian Succession; and the debt rose to eighty millions. Pamphleteers, historians and orators pronounced that now, at all events, the case was desperate. Under the prodigal administration of the first William Pitt, the debt rapidly swelled to 140 million. . . . Men of theory and men of business almost unanimously pronounced that the fatal day had now really arrived. . . . It was possible to prove by figures that the road to national ruin was through the national debt. It was idle, however, now to talk about the road; we had reached the goal; all was over; all the revenues of the island . . . were mortgaged. Better for us to have been conquered by Prussia. . . . And yet [one] had only to open his eyes to see improvement all around him, cities increasing, marts too small for the crowd of buyers, harbors insufficient to contain the shipping . . . houses better furnished . . . smoother roads. [After the Napoleonic War] the funded debt of England amounted to 800 million. It was in truth a . . . fabulous debt; and we can hardly wonder that the cry of despair should have been louder than ever. . . . Yet like Addison s valetudinarian, who contrived to whimper that he was dying of consumption till he became so fat that he was shamed into silence, she went on complaining that she was sunk in poverty till her wealth . . . made her complaints ridiculous. The . . . bankrupt society . . . while meeting these obligations, grew richer and richer so fast that the growth could almost be discerned by the eye. A sum exceeding [ 240 million, about one third of the national debt] was in a few years voluntarily expended by this ruined people on [the construction of railroads]. Meanwhile taxation was . . . becoming lighter; yet still the Exchequer was full. . . . The prophets of evil were under a double delusion. . . . They saw that the debt grew; and they forgot that other things grew as well as the debt. A long experience justifies us in believing that England may, in the twentieth century, be better able to pay a debt of 1,600 million than she is at the present time to bear her present load. [In 1990 the British national debt was over 200 billion.]
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During the war years up to 1815, the government financed its huge deficits principally through the sale of 3% consols at large discounts. They were sold as low as 55 57% of par to yield 5.45 5.25%, but more often at higher prices. These offerings were not worded, however, in terms of a percentage of par, but rather in terms of the value if redeemed. Thus, in 1800, as Table 18 indicates, the investor was offered by the government for each 100 of cash a face value of 147 of 3s. This equaled an annuity of 4.41% on his investment. In 1801 he was offered 1753 4 of 3s for 100, which equaled 5.26%. Income would be supplemented by a large profit if the 3s were ever redeemed. There was no promise of redemption, but eighty-seven years later the 3s were all redeemed at par. At times, high rate securities were also offered. These were usually 5s. For example,
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