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probably not caused by economic change but by a conflict between popular opinion and the needs of the national budget which shared in the profits of usury. Jews in Nuremberg borrowed money from the Holzschuher firm at an average of 94%, and presumably charged more, although the legal limit was also 431 3%. (252) Commercial Loans. A very general statement on commercial interest rates in the Netherlands quotes the same range of rates for the first part of the fourteenth century as for the thirteenth century: usually 10 16%, but at extremes 5 24%. The usual rate for good commercial credits was elsewhere quoted at 10 25%. Rates at the Champagne fairs were reported at 15 20%, with the dates not precisely stated. In Florence and Pisa, merchants and entrepreneurs in the fourteenth century could finance private business ventures at 7 15%. (253) It is stated that a decline in interest rates occurred at this time. In Venice loans were made to traders for activity within the city at 5 8% in the middle of the century. Later in the century 5% became the rule. Philip the Fair (IV) of France, attempted to distinguish between usury and trade loans made at fairs. In 1311 he allowed 21 2% to be charged for commercial loans from one fair to the next. This probably averaged 15% per annum, although the time span was highly variable. (254) Deposits. In 1369 pawnbrokers in Brussels paid 10% a year for deposits. (255) In Italy the rate paid on bank deposits declined from the 10 20% of the thirteenth century to the more modest figures of 5 10%. In 1300 1325 the Peruzzi paid a fixed 8%. Such payments on deposits were not always fixed; sometimes they depended upon profits. (256) Historians cite a decline in interest rates in the fourteenth century. Rates on deposits, government loans, and real estate investments in Italy are quoted at 8 12%. (257) Annuities and Mortgages. Rates of 8 10% on real estate loans are cited in this century for the Netherlands; this range was unchanged from the thirteenth century. At this time the city of Bruges did most of its financing by selling life annuities and rentes to private individuals; the rates it paid are not stated, but are said to have been far below commercial rates. Loans to States. The rates of interest on long-term forced loans to the commune of Florence are reported to have declined from 15% in the thirteenth century to 10% and then to 5% in 1370. (258) We are given no terms. In this century Venice provided a well-reported market-price history for its prestiti. These were the long-term government assessments which
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Prices and Yields of Venetian Prestiti
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Table 7 Summary of Fourteenth-Century Interest Rates
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paid interest and could be sold. For more than 100 years, through many wars and crises, the republic persisted in paying interest regularly on these forced loans. It was at 5% of face value, until the defeat of Venice by Genoa in 1379. There was no promised maturity, although some part was often redeemed. The prestiti became popular for investment throughout Europe. Foreign princes and capitalists bought them as a secure investment. The right to own them was a privilege that a foreigner could obtain only by an act of the Council of Venice. This right was much sought after. Prestiti were used to endow charities and to secure dowers. They were voluntarily held in the estates of many Venetian nobles even though their original issue was still by assessment. From 1200 to 1400 these forced loans took the place of all other forms of direct Venetian taxes. Ordinary revenues, such as a tax on the important salt monopoly, paid the peacetime expenses of the republic and at times yielded a surplus which was applied to redeeming the prestiti. Wars were frequent, however, and the most costly were the wars with Genoa. In wartime new prestiti were issued in volume, and the voluntary principal repayments were suspended. In one difficult period, 1311 1313, such internal loans, although large, did not cover the deficit, and the assets of the republic had to be pledged for a loan from Florence. For 1299, it was reported that the market price of the prestiti had declined to 60, which equaled 83 8% plus whatever hope there was of recovering the discount by eventual retirement. In the war with Genoa, 1294 1299, new assessments had been very large. From this date quotations become more frequent. Reported prices, with the minimum rates of current yield at these prices, were as shown on page 102. (259) Because of the many changes in administration of the prestiti after 1377 and the interruption of regular interest payments at a fixed rate, it does not seem advisable to attempt interest calculation after that date. Substantial interest payments were made, however. Venetian prosperity was not yet approaching its decline.
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