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Medieval and Renaissance Europe
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If thou lend money to any of my people that is poor by thee, thou shalt not be to him as an usurer. Exodus 22:25 Thou shalt not lend upon usury to thy brother; usury of money; usury of victuals; usury of anything. . . . Unto a stranger thou mayest lend upon usury; but unto thy brother thou shalt not lend upon usury. . . . Deuteronomy 23:19 20 He that hath not given forth upon usury, neither hath taken any increase . . . he is just, he shall surely live, saith the Lord God. Ezekiel 18:8 . . . lend freely, hoping nothing thereby. Luke 6:35
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Accordingly all the saints and all the angels of paradise cry then against [the usurer], saying, To hell, to hell, to hell. Also the heavens with their stars cry out, saying, To the fire, to the fire, to the fire. The planets also clamor, To the depths, to the depths, to the depths. ST. BERNARDINE, De Contractibus, Sermon 45, art. 3: c. 3 Upon the outermost Head of that seventh circle . . . Where sat the melancholy folk (the usurers) Out of their eyes was gushing forth their woe. DANTE, Divine Comedy, Inferno: Canto VII
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We shall better understand interest rates and credit forms in Europe during the medieval and renaissance periods if we first review the restrictions then placed on usury by Church doctrine. These restrictions at times seemed to approach absolute prohibition, and for many centuries they enjoyed widespread and official support. They therefore not only curtailed the use of credit but vitally influenced financial usage and those credit forms which gradually developed and gained acceptance. As early as 325 the first general council of the Christian Church, the Council of Nicea, passed a canon prohibiting usury by clerics and citing the Psalm 15. (138) Saint Jerome, 340 420, argued that the prohibition of usury among brothers in Deuteronomy (above) had been universalized by the Prophets and the New Testament; the troublesome permission to take usury from strangers was no longer warranted. Saint Ambrose, 340 397, argued that usury was only licit against the notorious foes of God s people, the enemy whom it would not be a crime to kill. (139) Pope Leo the Great, 440 461, forbade clerics to take usury and declared laymen who take it to be guilty of shameful gain. During the reign of Charlemagne, circa 800, not only did the Hadriana, a collection of canons, repeat and quote these earlier prohibitions, but for the first time the state, in the Capitularies of Charlemagne, forbade usury to everyone. Usury was defined; it was where more is asked than is given. From this time for 300 years the attack against usury was pressed intermittently by both Church and State. In 850 lay usurers were excommunicated by the Synod of Pavia. However, it was not until the eleventh century, when European learning and trade revived, that the Church s doctrine on usury was examined in detail by scholars and the prohibitions were spelled out by Church authorities. Usury was then declared to be even a form of robbery: a sin against the Seventh Commandment. (140) It became subjective: mental usury, according to St. Augustine, occurs when you expect to receive something more than you have given. In 1139 the Second Lateran Council prohibited usury and declared that usurers shall be held infamous. Pope Eugene III decreed that mortgages, in which the lender enjoyed the fruits of a pledge without counting them towards the principal, were usurious. (141) Restitution was required as in theft. Pope Alexander III, 1159 1181, declared that credit sales at a price above the cash price were usurious. Manifest usurers were excommunicated. Usurers were now guilty not only of lack of charity and of avarice, but of a sin against justice. Usury had become an invasion of a property right. The condemnation was not against gain as such. All usury is profit, but not all profit is usury, said St. Bernardine. Gain from work leading to the purchase and sale of goods was not questioned if at fair prices. Gain from work in industry and agriculture was a matter of course. Loans were regarded, not through mercantile eyes, but as forms of help that a
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