OTHER COUNTRIES AND THE 1990 S in .NET

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OTHER COUNTRIES AND THE 1990 S
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Although these limits were still not enforced, private loan contracts also indicate a decline in rates. These have been estimated as follows: (632)
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Government loans of seed to farmers were a usual part of China s ever-normal-granary plan. The interest rates were higher than those mentioned for loans of money. They were often at levels as high as 50% for the months from planting to harvest, which equals about 100 150% annual rate. Reform programs occasionally brought these rates down. For example, in 1069, the green sprout money was loaned to farmers in the spring and collected in the autumn at 10 20% interest, which equals annual rates of 20 50% (633). During the Ming period, 1368 1644, no further decline in interest rates is evident, but during the succeeding Ching dynasty, 1644 1912, there seems to have been a further decline. This has been reported as follows: (634)
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That the decline of interest rates was not confined to legal limits is suggested by the following quotations:
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There is no evidence that these lower rates quoted for the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries applied to consumer credit or other loans away from the big cities. Modern forms of commercial credit were developing in eastern China, and it is these that were quoted at lower interest rates. The mainstream of Western interest-rate history touched briefly on China s shores in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. It brought with it a few decades of commercial activity financed at rates of interest that were low by Chinese standards but usually high by European standards. In the late nineteenth century, European banks at the treaty ports and especially at Shanghai were instrumental in bringing rates down in these areas. (639) Large sums were attracted from the pocketbooks of European investors, who considered 6 10% a high rate of interest. In contrast to low treaty-port rates, rates in the interior remained high. As late as 1920, installment loans in Chinese villages were quoted at 60%. In 1933 it was estimated that Chinese farmers were paying an average of 85.2% for seed loans and an average of 34% for loans of money. (640) The highest rates must have been well above these averages. In 1927 1937, pawnshops in fact charged from the legal maximum of 20% up to 72%; loan clubs charged up to 30%; and farm mortgages cost 20% or more. (641) As recently as 1959, the government of Taiwan organized an agency to make production loans at 18% because the prevailing private rate was over 30%. (642) China thus remained a country of very high interest rates in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Some of the early twentieth-century rates from Shanghai quoted in the table on the next page were part of a brief episode when Western economic customs were for a time imitated in China. These tables attempt to sample late nineteenth- and early twentiethcentury rates paid by, and charged by, Chinese and foreign banks in Shanghai and other large cities; the first of these tables contrasts the Shanghai rates with those charged in the interior.
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OTHER COUNTRIES AND THE 1990 S
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Rates Among Bankers for Call ( Chop ) or Other Short Loans
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These tables suggest that in the areas not under Western influence, China remained a country of high interest rates, while in the treaty ports, lower rates often prevailed. The Japanese war, which began in 1937, led to an inflation that turned, after the war ended in 1945, into a classical hyperinflation. Rates of interest on commercial credits during this period may be summarized as shown in the table on the bottom of page 623. The government during these years often attempted to curb the inflation by limiting speculative credit and the rate of interest. In early 1946, the central bank s rediscount rate stood at 21%, and private banks were not permitted to pay more than 8.4% on deposits or to charge more
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