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The term of this credit was usually short:
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The annual rate of interest charged in 1933 on this rural credit was broken down in the survey as follows:
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The individual moneylenders who provided most of this credit belonged to the class of landlords, merchants, and retired officials. They advanced seed and cash. Loans secured by land usually ran for two or more years and were in the form of conditional sale of the land or of a mortgage up to 50 to 60% of the value of the land. As mortgage interest at 20% or more usually exceeded the productivity of the land, such loans could rarely be used for productive purposes. This survey of Chinese agricultural credit has been reported in detail because it gives a picture of the nature of many of the loans on which Chinese interest rates will be reported in the next section. Although the survey is relatively modern, the character of rural indebtedness has not changed greatly. These loans resemble the ancient personal loans of Babylonia, Greece, and Rome. They are far removed from the commercial and government loans of modern Europe and America that have been surveyed in earlier chapters. During the nineteenth century, foreign investment brought an influx of silver to China, which reinforced the traditional silver standard. Bank notes were also issued by the new modern banks and by the older indigenous banks. After 1911, four government banks attempted to control the currency. The silver standard lasted until 1935, when it was replaced by a foreign exchange standard. The war with Japan, 1937 1945, was marked by a classical papermoney inflation, which fell into three parts: (a) 1937 1939, when prices rose an average of 50% per year; (b) 1939 1941, when prices rose 160% per year; and (c) 1941 1945, when prices rose 300% per year. (628) After the war ended in 1945, prices dropped for a few months; but in 1946 a hyperinflation began, and prices doubled every two or three months. Many attempts at currency reform were then made and were unsuccessful. By October of 1948, prices were more than doubling every day. Thus, China provides us with one more example of interest rates in a period of hyperinflation. INTEREST RATES Our earliest information on Chinese interest rates comes from the Han dynasties of 200 B.C. to A.D. 220. This information consists largely of government regulations and scholars opinions on equitable rates of interest. An early Han historian wrote that in the second century B.C., the returns on moneylending ranged between 331 3% and 20% per annum (629); he considered the former rate too greedy. These are lower rates than are mentioned for later centuries. Toward the end of the first century B.C., credit conditions led to a reform movement. The government provided free loans for funerals and provided other loans to the needy poor at 36% per year. As this rate was considered philanthropic, prevailing rates must have been higher. The third, fourth, fifth, and sixth centuries were marked by internal conflict and many dynasties. We have no information on interest rates for
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these centuries. Beginning with the Tang dynasty, 618 907, information is more abundant: Interest rates began high and seemed to decline. Legal limits on loans and actual rates charged by the government, which was then an important creditor, were as follows:
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The decline in official rates of interest during the Tang dynasty is noticeable, although the rates did not return to the 20 331 3% level mentioned for the early Han period. In 765, seed loans from the government warehouses were made at rates as low as 45% per annum, but in the same century and the ninth century, seed loans by the government were also reported at 50% for four months, or an annual rate of 150% (630). Private loan contracts during the seventh to tenth centuries indicate that legal limits were not enforced. One specific loan contract from 782 states that Ma Ling-Chih, a soldier in need, borrowed cash from a monk of the Hu-Kuo monastery at interest of 10% per month, payable on demand; the loan was secured by the right to seize his property without adjustment for overage, and endorsed by his mother and younger sister. This was an uncompounded interest rate of 120% per annum. Most of the contracts of the Tang period that have been examined specify repayment in three to six months and interest at 6 10% a month, or 72 120% a year. During the Sung period, 960 1279, and the Yuan period, 1280 1368, there seems to have been a decline in official and conventional interest rates. Legal limits on loans of all types were reported as follows: (631)
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