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government s motivation, the tables make it clear that all forms of official interest rates in the Soviet Union declined from the 1920 s to the 1930 s and were held down after World War II until the 1960 s. Their downtrend in the 1930 s and 1940 s resembled the trend of interest rates in the West, but since the 1950 s, Russian interest rates have not been permitted to rise when Western interest rates have risen. Rigid, administered interest rates were merely one of many forms of state control of the socialist economy.
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BACKGROUND Throughout China s long history, its credit structure has remained underdeveloped. Credit in China has usually taken the form of personalconsumption loans from individuals or from pawnshops. Credit for productive purposes has been rare even in modern times. Commercial credit has usually been devoted to speculative purposes. The rate of interest ordinarily has been far above the normal earning power of agriculture or industry. China has always been predominantly an agricultural country. The ownership of land was preferred to commerce even when the rate of return on capital invested in land was far below the rate of return on capital invested in trade and in money lending. Social opinion and government policy were unfavorable to the merchants and bankers, who in early times were considered malicious and were heavily taxed. Barter has always been important in China; nevertheless, money in the form of coins and bullion was used as a medium of exchange as early as the fourth century B.C. (621) and probably much earlier. Copper or iron coins with a hole in the middle were the standard cash for small transactions for more than 2000 years. Large transactions were settled variously in gold or silver by weight, in bolts of silk, or in other valuable commodities, but until recently, payment of rents and of taxes was usually made in kind. After A.D. 1000 there were several experiments with paper money, which was called flying money because it originated in drafts used to transmit funds to distant places. Overissue often led to heavy
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depreciation. In the thirteenth century, China adopted a silver currency. Paper money did not reappear until the nineteenth century, when China fell under European influence. Banking transactions in China can be traced back for well over 2000 years. A bureau of currency and produce exchange was established by the government during the first millennium B.C. to make advances of money and seed to farmers. Private credit was then subjected to legal regulation. Limits on the rate of interest were decreed, as in the earliest historical periods of the Babylonian and Roman cultures. Early Chinese banking, however, was not as advanced as that which developed independently in the Mediterranean world in classical times or in the Middle Ages. (622) The writings of Marco Polo do not indicate the existence in China of anything as complex as the financial institutions of medieval Italy. The oldest credit institution in China was probably the monastery pawnshop. (623) In A.D. 200 300, Buddhist monasteries, like Babylonian, Greek, and Roman temples, practiced pawnbroking. They extended credit to rich and poor against precious metals, farm produce, and a wide variety of articles, which they held in warehouses. Private pawnshops were reported as early as A.D. 800, and by 1500 they had supplanted the monasteries. By the eighteenth century, pawnshops were required to register with the government and pay a license fee. Pawnbroking became one of the most profitable businesses in China; it grew spectacularly in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, when pawnshops were entrusted with public funds for investment. At that time, pawnshops functioned almost like commercial banks by making loans on commodities. Speculators used their facilities to accumulate inventories of raw materials, and farmers pawned grain in order to hold it for better prices. After 1850, pawnshops were supplanted in many of these functions by banks, which relied more on the personal credit of their customers. Cooperative loan societies have been traced back to A.D. 800. These informal groups provided mutual help for funerals, weddings, travel, emergencies, and productive purposes. Often they maintained community granaries. Interest was usually charged for these loans. Access to the use of the club funds was sometimes determined by lot (a dice-shaking society), sometimes according to whichever member offered to pay the highest interest (an auction society), and sometimes by turn (a rotating society). Modern banking was foreshadowed by (a) deposit shops, which from 800 on accepted cash and precious metals, charged a fee for storage, honored drafts, and issued deposit certificates, which eventually circulated; and (b) gold and silver shops, which dealt in precious metals and ornaments, cast and guaranteed ingots, and eventually issued secured notes, which circulated. In the eighteenth century a more advanced type of
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