OTHER COUNTRIES AND THE 1990 S in .NET

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OTHER COUNTRIES AND THE 1990 S
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Russia. The State Bank followed a very conservative policy; with foreign aid, the currency weathered the Russo-Japanese war, 1904 1905, and the revolution of 1905 1906. After 1860, joint-stock commercial banks were also organized. By 1914, Russia had 47 such banks, with 743 branches. (558) Like German banks, these banks conducted both commercial and investment banking and helped to finance a very rapid growth in Russian industry and commerce. A large part of their stock was foreign owned. By 1913 there were also some 300 private banking enterprises; largely unregulated, they represented the growth of an indigenous business class before World War I. (559) In the nineteenth century, small municipal banks and mutual credit societies were organized. Joint-stock land banks sprang up, which issued their own ten- to sixty-six-year bonds and loaned the money on farm mortgages. Some of these banks helped the newly liberated peasants to buy their farms, and others helped the aristocracy to retain their estates. State savings banks were also organized, and by 1912 more than 8000 were in existence. Securities markets were organized to trade in state bonds, railway bonds, and shares. During these few decades of rapid Westernization after 1860, Russian credit forms and interest rates bore a rough resemblance to those of Western Europe. World War I and the Revolution of 1917 brought this capitalistic development to an abrupt end. Russia s new dependence on foreign capital and on foreign commodity markets made her financial system highly vulnerable to war. Russia s total war expenditures of 67 billion rubles were covered 25% by taxation, 29% by long-term loans, 23% by Treasury bills, and 23% by note circulation. Between 1914 and 1917, currency circulation increased fifteenfold, and retail prices rose fifteenfold. (560) The period of War Communism, 1918 1921, and the period of the New Economic Policy, 1922 1925, together witnessed the hyperinflation described earlier. In 1917 1918 the private ownership of land was abolished; workers took control of all branches of the national economy; all public debts were annulled; and banks were nationalized. The jointstock banks and the mortgage banks were liquidated. A catastrophic decline in economic activity followed, which, in 1921 1922, led to the New Economic Policy. This program of expediency recognized that three-fourths of the nation s production and trade was still in private hands and required a medium of exchange and some access to credit and capital. The next few years witnessed a revival of commercial activity, continued inflation, and the highest recorded Russian interest rates. The current Communist banking system is built around the state bank (Gosbank), which was organized in 1921. Its declared purpose was to aid by credit and by other banking operations the development of industry, agriculture, and trade and to secure a sound monetary circulation. It paid interest on time and demand deposits owned by government
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RUSSIA
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enterprises and by others, and loaned at interest on collateral or overdraft. It bought and sold securities, commodities, foreign exchange, and precious metals. It did not, however, control the issue of notes, which remained in the hands of the state, and hence it could hardly provide a sound monetary circulation. The first few years of its existence saw the great inflation proceed and accelerate. In 1922, the Gosbank began to receive deposits repayable in gold rubles and to protect itself against inflation by requiring that loans be similarly repaid. It also developed a more stable unit of account, the chervonetz, to permit orderly credit operations. Financial settlements in money, bank loans, bank deposits, and the payment of interest on both loans and deposits continued in Russia, even though economic activity became increasingly socialistic, and private trade dwindled. Interest rates served a different function from that in a capitalistic economy. Legal interest rates were established by official decision. Depositors in savings banks were paid high or low interest depending on how urgently the government wished to encourage savings in this form and how effective a means interest payments were to this end. State enterprises were charged interest on their overdrafts as an encouragement to use resources efficiently and as a penalty for excessive working capital requirements. Interest rates under communism are not comparable in any important sense with interest rates in free market countries. Soviet Russia, however, does provide a unique interest-rate history. Official and unofficial interest rates were very high in the 1920 s; later, official rates became low. Unofficial rates of interest in modern Russia are not reported, but may exist in informal situations. In 1923, the Soviet government reestablished the system of savings banks. As inflation was still rampant, these banks sometimes protected small depositors from depreciation by calculating deposits in terms of a fixed currency from day of deposit to day of withdrawal (561), when they were paid off in paper money at its new value. By 1924, there were 2506 savings banks, and by 1928, there were 16,924 such banks. These financial agencies of the government were located at post offices, railroad stations, drugstores, factories, and other places where people came together. The banks invested in government bonds, which sometimes paid them a special rate of interest as reimbursement for expenses and high interest payments. After the currency stabilization of 1924, they ceased to protect depositors against currency depreciation. They were the agents for the government in the sale of government bonds to the public, and they also offered an arrangement for paying depositors recurrent bills and for making other remittances. In 1933 the savings banks had 24 million depositors (562); they became the only banks to receive individual deposits. In the 1930 s, their interest payments, then high by Western standards (6 9% per annum), were exempt from the income tax. After the currency reform of 1924, other credit institutions were
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