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BACKGROUND The financial history of Russia is a history of chronic currency debasement. In the sixteenth century, the government recoined foreign money at a profit of 100%. In 1645 1676, the government managed to turn copper coins worth 5 rubles into coins with a nominal value of 312 rubles, which soon had to be devalued. In 1689 1725, the silver ruble was debased about 42%. In 1769, a paper assignat was introduced; by 1810, it had depreciated 75% in terms of silver rubles. In 1839, a silver standard was adopted, and assignat rubles were officially devalued by 71%. The Crimean War, 1853 1856, led to a new cycle of inflation. It was not until 1897, when a gold standard was introduced, that the country enjoyed a stable currency, but it lasted less than twenty years. (554) World War I and the Revolution of 1917 led to a period of unprecedented inflation. By 1917, the ruble had lost 75% of its 1913 foreignexchange value; by 1920, it had lost 99.9% of its 1913 foreign-exchange value. The commodity price index rose 5800% between 1913 and 1918 and rose 4.9 million% between 1913 and 1921. (555) The currency was reformed in 1921, when one new 1921 ruble was exchanged for ten thousand czarist rubles. Another devaluation occurred in 1922 in the ratio of one new 1922 ruble for a hundred 1921 rubles. This was not the end. In 1923, the rate of inflation increased; at one time the ruble was depreciating at the rate of 5% an hour. (556) In 1924, temporary stability was achieved after another devaluation. In all, fifty billion of czarist rubles were exchanged for one new 1924 ruble. After 1924, prices continued
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to rise, but at an orderly rate; for example, free market bread rose 40% in 1928 and another 119% in 1929. Rationing and price controls, however, obscured the changes in the value of the currency after 1924. Finally, in 1936, a period of real stability was achieved. This, however, was soon followed by World War II, another inflation, and other reforms of the currency. Prices fell from the late 1940 s to the early 1950 s, after which there was some evidence of a measure of price stability. But these were administered prices rather than market-determined prices. Russian economic history falls into three parts. First, there were long centuries of medieval feudalism, during which a backward manorial economy was little concerned with commercial credit and money markets. This condition lasted well into the nineteenth century. Second, there was a brief period during the late nineteenth century when Russia attempted to develop a modern industrial and capitalistic economy in the manner of Western Europe; this lasted perhaps eight decades. Third, there followed seven decades of socialism under Communist direction. As the 1990 s opened, major changes in economic relationships in Soviet Russia appeared to be on the horizon. No history of interest rates is reported for the long centuries of Russian serfdom. Credit was confined largely to personal-consumption loans, as it was in most backward agricultural societies. Foreign trade was financed abroad. In medieval times, Italian bankers did not establish branches in Russia as they did throughout Western Europe. Instead, German, Dutch, and English traders financed the Baltic trade in Antwerp. As time passed, however, foreigners came to Russia and engaged in trade and manufacture. In this way Western financial methods gradually infiltrated and were imitated in the big cities. Early Russian banks were rudimentary. By 1754, the state had established two banks, a State Loan Bank for the Nobility and a State Commercial Bank. (557) Loans, however, were based on favoritism and lacked good collateral; both banks were closed in 1786. Further attempts by the state to organize banks met with limited success. In the 1860 s, following the emancipation of the serfs, a serious effort was made to create a banking system in the Western manner. The State Bank was organized in 1860 to promote trade and stabilize the currency. It accepted demand and time deposits; made loans secured by securities, land, or merchandise; discounted commercial paper; bought securities and precious metals; and issued bank notes. Monetary troubles, however, persisted until the 1890 s, and the ruble sold at heavy discounts in world markets. The monetary reforms of 1895 1897 devalued the ruble by onethird, provided for specie payments, and established a gold standard. Thereafter, for fourteen years, foreign capital was attracted in large volume and played a very important part in the economic development of
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