MODERN EUROPE AND NORTH AMERICA TO 1900 in .NET

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MODERN EUROPE AND NORTH AMERICA TO 1900
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tender notes. During the entire war period of 1861 1865 these forms of credit provided funds as follows: (499)
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The notes were often made convertible into long-term bonds. Although the notes were not usually payable in specie, the bonds into which they were convertible were considered to be payable in specie. Notes were receivable at the Treasury for taxes and dues, except for customs. Bonds were made exempt from local taxation. The Treasury found that a large volume of outstanding convertible notes facilitated the flotation of bonds, and that the depreciation of the currency at times had the same effect. Most bond issues took the form of 6s redeemable in five years and due in twenty years; these were the famous 5 20s of which several series were floated. They were sold for cash or exchanged for Treasury notes. At first these 6% 5 20s sold poorly. Outstanding 6s were usually selling well below par. The military news in 1862 was adverse. Out of an authorized amount of $515 million, the Treasury sold only $23.7 million of such bonds in 1862 as follows: 1862 $23.7 million 6% 5 20s of 1862, redeemable in 1867, due in 1882, exempt from local taxes; sold at about 100 = 6.00%. (An additional $491 million of this issue was sold in 1863 and 1864.) During the crucial year of 1862 the bond market declined no further. In fact the average price of the 6s of 1848 1868 rose three points to 96, New England municipals advanced in price, and railroad bonds advanced sharply. The war no doubt was good for railroad credit. Railroad bonds were not yet high-grade securities. In 1863 the Congress gave the Treasury great latitude in the sale of bonds or notes. It also passed the National Banking Act, which provided for a large future market for government bonds. There was increasing confidence in victory. Finally a different method of bond selling was adopted. Instead of asking banks for bids, the Treasury employed an experienced investment banker, Jay Cooke, as agent, at a commission of 3 8 of 1%. Cooke employed 2500 subagents.
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THE U.S. IN THE EIGHTEENTH AND NINETEENTH CENTURIES
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Table 42 Prices and Yields of Long-Term High-Grade Bonds: 1860 1879
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(continued)
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MODERN EUROPE AND NORTH AMERICA TO 1900
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Table 42
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Continued
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In 1863 greenback prices in all departments of the bond market improved substantially. The year 1864 saw gold rise to its wartime high of $2.33 in greenbacks. As a consequence the greenback prices of gold bonds of short redemption date rose to large premiums, although the redemption gold price and redemption policy were unknown. As an example,
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THE U.S. IN THE EIGHTEENTH AND NINETEENTH CENTURIES
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the 6s of 1848 1868 rose from a low of 93 in 1863 to a high of 145 in 1864. These bonds were in fact redeemed in 1869 in gold, but in gold worth about $1.25 in greenbacks, not $2.33. Longer-term government bond prices also rose to premiums in 1864. The municipal and railroad bond average prices declined in sharp contrast to the speculative rise in government bond prices. In 1864, although the war was approaching its end, it had only been half financed. The Treasury was able to sell a large volume of bonds, but not at such favorable terms as the market price of its seasoned issues might suggest. Early in the year another $100 million of the 5 20s of 1862 were sold and then a new longer issue was sold as follows: 1864 $75 million 6s of 1863, redeemable in 1881, tax-exempt; sold at 104.45 = 5.60%.
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The Treasury soon made an attempt to sell 5s, which met with a lukewarm reception. In order to attract investors to the lower rate the Treasury extended the term to redemption from five to ten years and the maturity from twenty to forty years: 5%, 10 40s of 1864, redeemable 1874, due in 1904, tax-exempt; sold at 100 = 5%. (In 1865 $123 million more were sold at prices up to 107 = 4.62%.) In 1865, with peace and victory, the gold price declined to as low as $1.36. The prices of bonds of all kinds also declined. Governments averaged 2 5 points lower. Railroad bonds fell precipitately, the average yield moving from 4.83% in 1864 to 6.02% in 1865. Railroad bonds did not recover until 1879; the end of wartime prosperity had an adverse effect on railroad credit. In 1865 the Treasury returned to a 6% coupon on its long-term bonds and promoted a vigorous program of debt funding. New issues sold in 1865 1866 were: 1865 $125 million 6% 5 20s of 1864, redeemable in 1869, due in 1884, tax-exempt; sold at 1021 2 average price = 5.42% to redemption. 6% 5 20s of 1865, redeemable in 1870, due in 1885, tax-exempt; sold at 1021 2 average price = 5.42% to redemption. 1864 $73 million
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