THE U.S. IN THE EIGHTEENTH AND NINETEENTH CENTURIES in .NET

Build QR Code in .NET THE U.S. IN THE EIGHTEENTH AND NINETEENTH CENTURIES
THE U.S. IN THE EIGHTEENTH AND NINETEENTH CENTURIES
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Table 39 Prices and Yields of Long-Term High-Grade Bonds, 1798 1809
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MODERN EUROPE AND NORTH AMERICA TO 1900
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This was the European principle of perpetual funded debts, dating back to the medieval census annuities. Loans to a foreign country, however, usually specified a maturity date at which the debtor must pay. Shortterm loans of the government also often specified a maturity. While the maturity provisions of long-term American government loans were lacking or were ambiguously worded, almost all issues were in fact redeemed at, or a few years after, earliest redemption date. For these years the market prices and current yields of State of Massachusetts 5% bonds are available and may be compared with the yields on federal government bonds. There was no government issue with the same nominal rate; therefore precise comparison of yields is not always possible. However, the lower yield for the Massachusetts 5s in periods when the United States 6s of 1790 sold at heavy discounts, as well as when the 6s sold at par, suggests that the new national government had not yet achieved the credit standing of the venerable state. The year-to-year price trend of the Massachusetts bonds was the same as the trend of federal government bonds. Indeed, the yields of all four issues quoted in the table fluctuated together in spite of very different terms and levels; this indicates that we are reviewing a true market for longterm debt instruments. 1810 1829. In spite of the recurrent Treasury surpluses of the first decade and a remarkable record of debt retirement, the Treasury and the financial markets of the United States were not well prepared to finance the War of 1812. In 1811 the first Bank of the United States was deprived of its charter, and the government, with its funds transferred to state banks, enjoyed no sure source of credit. The war was politically unpopular in wealthy states, and Congress refused to vote adequate taxes to support the new war debt. Caught between limitations placed by Congress on the rates and prices of its loans and the reluctance of investors to buy, the Treasury was ultimately forced to accept very unfavorable terms. War finance was divided between issues of short-term Treasury notes and issues of long-term bonds. All save the small denominations of notes bore interest, and this was usually at 5.40%. The notes were made fundable into government bonds, and after the war they were rapidly funded. (496) Table 40 shows that the market for government securities remained around its 1809 highs in 1810 and 1811 in spite of the war clouds. In 1812 in a lower market the government floated its first bond issue for new cash in many years: 1812 $8.1 million 6s of 1812, redeemable in 1825; sold at 100 = 6%.
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THE U.S. IN THE EIGHTEENTH AND NINETEENTH CENTURIES
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Table 40 Prices and Yields of Long-Term High-Grade Bonds, 1810 1829
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(continued)
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In 1813 the bond market declined a few points further. With difficulty the treasury obtained the permission of Congress to sell bonds below par and then made the mistake of promising buyers of the first discount 6s that they would get the benefit of any lower prices subsequently accepted. Now investors had a near-term interest in a further
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MODERN EUROPE AND NORTH AMERICA TO 1900
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Table 40
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decline in the market. Three issues of 6s were sold under this authorization as follows: 1813 1813 1814 1814 $18.1 million $8.5 million $15.4 million 6s of 1813 1st Loan, redeemable in 1826; sold at 88 = 6.83% current yield. 6s of 1813, 2nd Loan, redeemable in 1826; sold at 881 4 = 6.80% current yield. 6s of 1814, redeemable in 1827; sold at 80 = 7.50% current yield.
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The last loan created trouble. Some of it was even sold for state bank notes worth only 65 in specie, and this was a yield of 9.25%. Earlier subscribers hastened to demand supplementary stock for the difference. In 1814 the 6s of 1790 declined to a low of 65, to yield 9.22%. These
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