30-12: Searching for company name nodes in Java

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Listing 30-12: Searching for company name nodes
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<cffile action= READ file= #ExpandPath( empdirectory.xml )# variable= XmlDoc > <cfset XmlObj = XmlParse(XmlDoc)> <cfset results = XmlSearch(XmlObj, /companies/company/name )> <cfdump var= #results# >
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Notice the syntax of the search string. The path begins with /, meaning start at the root of the document. From there, XPath selects the companies node, any nodes named company (of which you have three), and then the name node of each company node. Any node that matches that string is returned as an element in the array named results. Figure 30-8 shows the result of calling XmlSearch().
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Figure 30-8: The result of using XmlSearch() with /companies/company/name . The result is an array of three XML elements, each corresponding to a company name. Sometimes an XPath string beginning at the document root can get too long for effective development, especially in a deeply nested XML document such as the employee directory that we re using. Luckily, an XPath syntax is available that finds a node of a particular name anywhere within the document, as follows:
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//name
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If the XPath string begins with a double slash, XPath finds a matching node anywhere in the document. Searching on //name produces the result shown in Figure 30-9.
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Figure 30-9: The result of searching for //name. What s going on here Not only did XmlSearch return company names, but it returned employee names as well! Because using // means to find a matching node anywhere, and because both company and employee elements can have name elements underneath them, both types of name node are found. To restrict the match so that it finds only company names, use the following syntax:
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//company/name
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Now XPath looks for company nodes regardless of where they are in the document and then selects the name node under each company node. Because XPath looks for company nodes before looking for name nodes, no employee names appear. You can also restrict by the value of a tag attribute. If, for example, you want to find the company node with an id attribute of 13, use the following syntax:
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//company[@id = 13]
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Whenever you see square brackets in an XPath expression, think restriction, and whenever you see the @ symbol, think attribute. In this case, you re telling XPath to find a company node anywhere in the XML document, but restrict the match to only those nodes with an id attribute with a value of 13. Searching for this expression produces the result shown in Figure 30-10.
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Figure 30-10: The result of searching for
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//company[@id = 13].
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Notice that only one company is returned, and that the company s id attribute is 13. You can also search based on a subelement of a node. You can, for example, search for the employee node with an ssn element s value of 123-45-6789 by using the following syntax:
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//employee[ssn = 123-45-6789 ]
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XPath looks for employee nodes anywhere in the XML document and then restricts the found nodes to only those employees with an ssn element with a value of 123-45-6789 . Notice that since the ssn doesn t begin with an @ symbol, XPath looks for an element named ssn rather than an attribute named ssn. You can also search based on a node s actual value by using XPath s dot operator, as in the following example:
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//employee/ssn[. = 123-45-6789 ]
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Here s how XPath processes this statement: 1. XPath finds all employee elements anywhere in the XML document, regardless of their location. 2. XPath then finds all ssn elements directly underneath the employee nodes that it s already found. 3. XPath restricts the returned ssn elements to only those elements with a value of 123-45-6789 . Running this search expression produces the result shown in Figure 30-11. Figure 30-11: The result of searching for
//employee/ssn[. = 123-45-6789 ].
Notice that, in the preceding example, instead of selecting the employee node, you inadvertently select the ssn node. To find matching ssn nodes and then reselect the containing employee node, you must use another new syntax, as follows:
//employee/ssn[. = 123-45-6789 ]/..
Notice that, just as you would have done with a file system, you use two periods to move up one level in the hierarchy. You can also use the following syntax to drill down further into a set of nodes: