Retrieving an Element From a Structure in Java

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Retrieving an Element From a Structure
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You have two ways to retrieve an element from a structure. The simplest is to use dot notation or associative-array notation, as follows:
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<cfoutput> #myStruct.NotARealFruit#<br> #myStruct[ Coolest Fruit ]# </cfoutput>
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If you d rather use a function, use StructFind() as follows:
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<cfoutput> #StructFind(myStruct, NotARealFruit )#<br> #StructFind(myStruct, Coolest Fruit )# </cfoutput>
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Both syntaxes throw an error if the specified key does not exist. You derive no benefit from one or the other syntax, because both do the same thing, so pick whichever one you that like and use it. Using associative-array or dot notation, however, is usually much more readable. Notice that you can set an element by using associative-array notation and retrieve it by using dot notation; this is what we usually do, as the following example shows:
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<cfset myStruct[ TangiestFruit ] = orange > <cfoutput>#myStruct.TangiestFruit#</cfoutput>
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We set elements by using associative-array notation to preserve the case of the key, but we retrieve the element by using dot notation because it s typically more readable. Remember, however, that you aren t required to use only one syntax use whichever syntax best fits the situation.
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Removing an Element From a Structure
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You delete a key from a structure by using StructDelete(), as follows:
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<cfset success = StructDelete(myStruct, Coolest Fruit )>
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After you call StructDelete(), myStruct looks as follows:
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15 Working with Structures
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FavoriteFruit: SweetestFruit: Biggest Fruit: NotARealFruit: Sourest Fruit: TangiestFruit:
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Coolest Fruit is gone. Notice that you never have undefined keys in a structure, which is another way that structures are different from arrays.
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To quickly remove all elements from a structure, use StructClear(), as follows:
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<cfset success = StructClear(myStruct)>
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After you call StructClear, myStruct still exists, but it contains no elements.
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Getting Information About a Structure
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StructIsEmpty() tells you whether any elements are in a given structure, as the following
example shows:
<cfif StructIsEmpty(myStruct)>
To get a specific count of how many top-level (that is, nonnested) elements are in a structure, use StructCount(), as follows:
<cfoutput>#StructCount(myStruct)#</cfoutput>
To tell whether a given variable contains a structure, use IsStruct(), as follows:
<cfif IsStruct(myStruct)> IsStruct returns TRUE if the passed variable is a structure and FALSE if it does not.
Looping Over a Structure
One form of CFLOOP enables you to loop over the keys in a structure, as the following example shows:
<cfoutput> <cfloop collection= #myStruct# item= theItem > The value of the #theItem# key is #myStruct[theItem]#.<br> </cfloop> </cfoutput>
The collection attribute tells ColdFusion which structure to loop over, and the item attribute is what ColdFusion names the variable that contains the key name. ColdFusion loops over every element in the structure and puts the key s name in theItem each time that the loop iterates. If you don t need to loop over the structure but you need a list or array containing the structure s keys, use StructKeyList() or StructKeyArray(), as follows:
<cfset keyList = StructKeyList(myStruct)> <cfset keyArray = StructKeyArray(myStruct)>
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StructKeyList() takes an optional second parameter describing the delimiter to use for the list. The following line of code, for example, creates a semicolon-delimited list containing the names of the top-level keys in myStruct: <cfset keyList = StructKeyList(myStruct, ; )>
Nested Structures
So far you ve created keys containing simple string values, but the most powerful feature of structures is their capability to nest inside another structure. Nesting enables you to create hierarchical data structures that closely resemble real-world data models. The simple structure that we created earlier looks like what s shown in Figure 15-3. Figure 15-3: A simple structure.
A nested structure would look like what s shown in Figure 15-4. Figure 15-4: Structures nested inside one another.
Notice that in Figure 15-4, smaller structures are nested inside the enclosing structure. Creating a nested structure may seem complicated, but it really is quite simple. In the following example, you create a new key named FruitCosts in myStruct that contains a substructure that, in turn, contains the names of fruits and their respective costs:
15 Working with Structures
<cfset <cfset <cfset <cfset
myStruct[ FruitCosts ] = StructNew()> myStruct.FruitCosts[ Oranges ] = 1.99> myStruct.FruitCosts[ Apples ] = 1.50> myStruct.FruitCosts[ Peaches ] = 1.75>
Now myStruct looks like what s shown in Figure 15-5. Figure 15-5: A substructure inside myStruct.
Structures can be nested many levels deep in any configuration. You can also use associative-array notation to create nested structures, as follows:
<cfset <cfset <cfset <cfset myStruct[ FruitCosts ] = StructNew()> myStruct[ FruitCosts ][ Oranges ] = 1.99> myStruct[ FruitCosts ]] Apples ] = 1.50> myStruct[ FruitCosts ][ Peaches ] = 1.75>
Our personal preference is to use dot notation for every nesting level except the final one, as in the following example:
<cfset <cfset <cfset <cfset myStruct[ FruitCosts ] = StructNew()> myStruct.FruitCosts[ Oranges ] = 1.99> myStruct.FruitCosts] Apples ] = 1.50> myStruct.FruitCosts[ Peaches ] = 1.75>
Just make sure that you don t have any special characters or spaces in your key names or have key names made entirely of numbers in the dot-path portion of your notation.