INTEGRATING SYSTEM DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES in .NET

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25.7 INTEGRATING SYSTEM DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES
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Although the system design and SITE strategies represent the overall system development work ow, the progression has numerous feedback loops to perform corrective actions for design aws, errors, and de ciencies. As such, the two strategies need to be integrated to form an overall strategy that enables us to address the feedback loops. If we integrate Figures 25.1 and 25.3, Figure 25.5 emerges and forms what is referred to as the V-Model of system development. The V-Model is a pseudo time-based model. In general, work ow progresses from left to right over time. However, the highly iterative characteristic of the System Design Process strategy and veri cation corrective action aspects of SITE may require returning to a preceding step. Recall from above that the corrective actions might involve a re-working of lower level speci cations, designs, and components. So, as the corrective actions are implemented over time, work ow does progress from left to right to delivery and acceptance of the system. Author s Note 25.3 This point illustrates WHERE and HOW system development programs become bottlenecked, consuming resources without making earned value work progress because of re-work. It also reinforces the importance of investing in up-front SE as a means of minimizing and mitigating re-work risks! Despite all of the rhetoric by local heroes that SE is a non value-
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User s System
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System Design Process
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SYSTEM Level Design SYSTEM Level Design
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Highly Iterative
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Requirements Allocations
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SITE Process
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System Performance Specification (SPS)
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Compliance Verification
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SYSTEM Level
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Prelim.
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PRODUCT Level Design PRODUCT Level Design
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PRODUCT Level
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SUBSYSTEM Level SUBSYSTEM Level
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Highly Iterative
Requirements Allocations SUBSYSTEM
Development Spec.
Compliance Verification
SUBSYSTEM Level
Prelim. Design
SUBASSY. Level SUBASSY. Level
Requirements Allocations
Design Requirements
Compliance Verification
SUBASSY Level
Highly Iterative
Prelim. Design
PART PART
Requirements Allocations
Design Requirements
PART Level
System Design Solution
Technical Data Package (TDP)
Component Procurement & Development Process
Figure 25.5 V Model of System Development
25.9 Summary
added activity, SITE exempli es WHY homegrown ad hoc engineering efforts falter and program cost and schedule performance re ects it.
Final Thought
Although we have not covered it in this chapter, some programs begin work from a very abstract Statement of Objectives (SOO) rather than an SPS. Where this is the case, spiral development is employed to reiterate the V-Model for incremental builds intended to mature knowledge about the SYSTEM requirements. We will discuss this topic in 27 on system development Models.
25.8 GUIDING PRINCIPLES
In summary, the preceding discussions provide the basis with which to establish the guiding principles that govern system design, integration, and veri cation strategy practices. Principle 25.1 System design is a highly iterative, collaborative, and multi-level process with each level dependent on maturation of higher level speci cation and design decisions. Principle 25.2 A system design solution is not contractually complete until it is veri ed as compliant with its Acquirer approved System Performance Speci cation (SPS). Technically it is not complete until all latent defects are removed, but most systems exist between these two extremes. Principle 25.3 The number of latent defects in the elded system is a function of the thoroughness of the effort time and resources spent on system integration, test, and evaluation (SITE).
25.9 SUMMARY
During our discussion of the system design, integration, and veri cation strategy, we described the SE design strategy that analyzes, allocates, and ows down System Performance Speci cation (SPS) requirements through multiple levels of abstraction to various item development speci cations and item architectural designs. Next we described a strategy for integrating each of the procured or developed items into successively higher levels of integration. At each level each item s capabilities and levels of performance are to be veri ed against their respective speci cations. 1. The SE process strategy provides a multi-level model for allocating and owing down SPS requirements to lower levels of abstraction. 2. Unlike the Waterfall Model, the SE Process strategy accommodates simultaneous, multi-level design activities including Preliminary Design activities. 3. Whereas a design at any level may be formally baselined to promote stability for lower level decision making, a design at any level is still subject to formal change management modi cation through the end of formal acceptance for delivery. 4. The SE design strategy includes multiple control points to verify and validate decisions prior to commitment to the next level of design activities. 5. The SITE Process implements a strategy that enables us to integrate and verify lower level components into successively higher levels until the system is fully assembled and veri ed. 6. The SITE Process strategy includes breakout points to implement corrective actions that often lead back to the SE Design Process. 7. Corrective actions may require revision of lower level speci cations, redesign, rework of components, or retraining of test operators to correct for design aws and errors, de ciencies, discrepancies, etc.