How a Virtually Inherited Object Is Constructed in .NET framework

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How a Virtually Inherited Object Is Constructed
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Let's look at how objects under virtual inheritance are constructed
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Bear winnie("pooh"); // Bearconstructor initializes ZooAnimal Raccoon meeko("meeko"); // Raccoon constructor initializes ZooAnimal Panda yolo("yolo"); // Panda constructor initializes ZooAnimal
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When a Panda object is created,
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1 TheZooAnimal part is constructed first, using the initializers specified in the Panda constructor initializer list 2 Next, the Bear part is constructed The initializers for ZooAnimal Bear's constructor initializer list are ignored 3 Then the Raccoon part is constructed, again ignoring the ZooAnimal initializers 4 Finally, the Panda part is constructed If the Panda constructor does not explicitly initialize the ZooAnimal base class, then the ZooAnimal default constructor is used If ZooAnimal doesn't have a default constructor, then the code is in error The compiler will issue an error message when the definition of Panda's constructor is compiled
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Constructor and Destructor Order
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C++ Primer, Fourth Edition By Stanley B Lippman,Jos e Lajoie, Barbara E Moo Virtual base classes are always constructed prior to nonvirtual base Publisher:Addison classes regardless Wesley they appear in the inheritance hierarchy of where Professional Pub Date: February 14, 2005 Print ISBN: 0-201-72148-1 Pages: 912
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Table of Contents | Index
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For example, in the following whimsical TeddyBear derivation, there are two virtual base classes: This popular tutorial introduction to standard C++ has ZooAnimal base class from which Bear is help theToyAnimal base class and the indirect been completely updated, reorganized, and rewritten toderived:
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programmers learn the language faster and use it in a more modern, effective wayJust as C++ has evolved since the last edition, so has the authors' approach to teaching it They now introduce the C++ standard library from the beginning, giving readers the means to write useful programs */ };first having to master every language detail Highlighting today's best class Character { /* without practices, they show how to write programs that are safe, can be built /* */ }; outstanding performance class BookCharacter : public Character { quickly, and yet offer Examples that take advantage of/* library,*/ }; class ToyAnimal { the and explain the features of C++, also show how to make the best use of the language As TeddyBear editions, the book's authoritative discussion of fundamental C++ concepts and techniques makes class in its previous : public BookCharacter, it a valuable resource even for more experienced programmersProgram Faster and More Effectively with This Rewritten public Bear, public virtual ToyAnimal Classic Restructured for quicker learning, using*/ C++ standard library Updated to teach the most current programming { /* the }; styles and program design techniques Filled with new learning aids that emphasize important points, warn about common pitfalls, suggest good programming practices, and provide general usage tips Complete with exercises that reinforce skills learned Authoritative and comprehensive in its coverageThe source code for the book's extended examples is available on the Web at the address below
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Figure 175 Virtual Inheritance TeddyBear Hierarchy
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The immediate base classes are examined in declaration order to determine whether there are any virtual base classes In our example, the inheritance subtree of BookCharacter is examined first, then that of Bear, and finally that of ToyAnimal Each subtree is examined starting at the root class down to the most derived class The order in which the virtual base classes are constructed for TeddyBear is ZooAnimal followed by ToyAnimal Once the virtual base classes are constructed, the nonvirtual base-class constructors are invoked in declaration order: BookCharacter , which causes the Character constructor to be invoked, and then Bear Thus, to create a TeddyBear, the constructors are invoked in the following order:
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ZooAnimal();
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// Bear's virtual base class
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ToyAnimal(); // immediate virtual base class Character(); // BookCharacter's nonvirtual base class BookCharacter(); // immediate nonvirtual base class C++ Primer, Fourth Edition Bear(); // immediate nonvirtual base class By Stanley B Lippman,Jos e Lajoie, TeddyBear(); // most derived class
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Barbara E Moo Publisher:Addison Wesley Professional where the initializers used for ZooAnimal and ToyAnimal are specified by the most derived class Pub Date: February 14, 2005 TeddyBear Print ISBN: 0-201-72148-1 Pages: 912 The same construction order is used in the synthesized copy constructor; the base classes also are
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