Normal Conversions Apply for Nontemplate Arguments in .NET

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Normal Conversions Apply for Nontemplate Arguments
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The restriction on type conversions applies only to those arguments whose types are template parameters
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Normal conversions (Section 712, p 229) are allowed for parameters defined using ordinary types The following function template sum has two parameters:
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template <class Type> Type sum(const Type &op1, int op2) { return op1 + op2; }
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The first parameter, op1 , has a template parameter type Its actual type cannot be known until the function is used The type of the second parameter, op2 , is known: It's int Because the type of op2 is fixed, normal conversions can be applied to arguments passed to
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op2 when sum is called:
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double d C++314; Fourth Edition = Primer, string s1("hiya"), s2("Jos e Lajoie, By Stanley B Lippman, world"); Barbara E ok: sum(1024, d); //Moo instantiates sum(int, int), convertsdtoint sum(14, d); // ok: instantiates sum(double, int), convertsdtoint Publisher: error: s2 Wesley sum(s1, s2); // Addison cannot be converted toint
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Professional Pub Date: February 14, 2005 Print ISBN: 0-201-72148-1 Pages: 912 In the first two calls, the type of the second argument dd is not the same as the type of the
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Table of Contents | Index corresponding function
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parameter However, these calls are okay: There is a conversion from
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double to int Because the type of the second parameter does not depend on a template parameter, the compiler will implicitly convert dd The first call causes the function sum(int, int) to be instantiated; sum(double, int) is instantiated by the second call
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This popular tutorial introduction to standard C++ has been completely updated, reorganized, and rewritten to help programmers learn The third call isthe language There is use itconversion from string to int C++ has evolved since the last an error faster and no in a more modern, effective wayJust as Using a string argument edition, so has the authors' approach to teaching it They now introduce the C++ standard library from the beginning, giving to match an int parameter is, as usual, illegal readers the means to write useful programs without first having to master every language detail Highlighting today's best practices, they show how to write programs that are safe, can be built quickly, and yet offer outstanding performance Examples that take advantage of the library, and explain the features of C++, also show how to make the best use of the Template in its previous editions, the book'sand Function Pointers Argument Deduction authoritative discussion of fundamental C++ concepts and techniques makes language As it a valuable resource even for more experienced programmersProgram Faster and More Effectively with This Rewritten We can use a function template using the C++ standard library Updated to teach the most (Section 79, p Classic Restructured for quicker learning, to initialize or assign to a function pointer current programming 276)and program design techniques Filled with new learning aids that emphasize important points, warn about commonthe styles When we do so, the compiler uses the type of the pointer to instantiate a version of template with the appropriate template argument(s) tips Complete with exercises that reinforce skills pitfalls, suggest good programming practices, and provide general usage learned Authoritative and comprehensive in its coverageThe source code for the book's extended examples is available on As an example, assume we have a function pointer that points to a function returning an int the Web at the address below
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that takes two parameters, each of which is a reference to a const int We could use that pointer to point to an instantiation of compare:
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template <typename T> int compare(const T&, const T&); // pf1 points to the instantiation int compare (const int&, const int&) int (*pf1) (const int&, const int&) = compare;
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The type of pf1 is "pointer to function returning an int taking two parameters of type const int&" The type of the parameters in pf1 determines the type of the template argument for T The template argument for T is int The pointer pf1 refers to the instantiation with T bound to int
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When the address of a function-template instantiation is taken, the context must be such that it allows a unique type or value to be determined for each template parameter
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It is an error if the template arguments cannot be determined from the function pointer type For example, assume we have two functions named func Each function takes a pointer to function argument The first version of func takes a pointer to a function that has two const string reference parameters and returns a string The second version of func takes a pointer to a function taking two const int reference parameters and returning an int We cannot use
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compare as an argument to func:
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C++ Primer, Fourth Edition // overloaded versions of func; each take a different function pointer type By Stanley B Lippman, string&, void func(int(*) (constJos e Lajoie, const string&)); Barbara E (const int&, const int&)); void func(int(*)Moo func(compare); // error: which instantiation of compare Publisher:Addison Wesley Professional Pub Date: February 14, 2005 Print ISBN: 0-201-72148-1 The problem is that by looking at the type of func's parameter, it is not possible to determine Pages: 912 a unique type for the template argument The call to func could instantiate either of the
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Table of Contents | Index following functions:
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compare(const string&, const string&)
This popular tutorial introduction to standard C++int&) completely updated, reorganized, and rewritten to help compare(const int&, const has been programmers learn the language faster and use it in a more modern, effective wayJust as C++ has evolved since the last edition, so has the authors' approach to teaching it They now introduce the C++ standard library from the beginning, giving readers the means to write useful programs without first having to master every language detail Highlighting today's best practices, Because they show how to write programs that are safe, can be built quickly, and yet offer outstanding performance call it is not possible to identify a unique instantiation for the argument to func, this Examples that take advantage of the library, and explain the features of C++, also show how to make the best use of the is a compile-time (or link-time) error language As in its previous editions, the book's authoritative discussion of fundamental C++ concepts and techniques makes it a valuable resource even for more experienced programmersProgram Faster and More Effectively with This Rewritten Classic Restructured for quicker learning, using the C++ standard library Updated to teach the most current programming styles and program design techniques Filled with new learning aids that emphasize important points, warn about common pitfalls, suggest good programming practices, and provide general usage tips Complete with exercises that reinforce skills learned Authoritative and comprehensive in its coverageThe source code for the book's extended examples is available on the Web at the address below