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Exercises Section 234
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int main() { int local_int; std::string local_str; // return 0; }
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235 Declarations and Definitions
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As we'll see in Section 29 (p 67), C++ programs typically are composed of many files In order for multiple files to access the same variable, C++ distinguishes between declarations and definitions Adefinition of a variable allocates storage for the variable and may also specify an initial value for the variable There must be one and only one definition of a variable in a program Adeclaration makes known the type and name of the variable to the program A definition is also a declaration: When we define a variable, we declare its name and type We can declare a name without defining it by using the extern keyword A declaration that is not also a definition consists of the object's name and its type preceded by the keyword extern:
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extern int i; int i;
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// declares but does not definei // declares and defines i
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Anextern declaration is not a definition and does not allocate storage In effect, it claims that C++ Primer, exists elsewhere in the program A variable can be declared multiple a definition of the variableFourth Edition By Stanley it must be defined times in a program, but B Lippman,Jos e Lajoie, only once
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Barbara E Moo A declaration may have an initializer only if it is also a definition because only a definition Publisher:Addison Wesley allocates storage The initializer must have storage to initialize If an initializer is present, the Professional declaration is treated as a definition even if the declaration is labeled extern: Pub Date: February 14, 2005 Print ISBN: 0-201-72148-1 extern double pi = 31416; // definition Pages: 912
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Table of Contents | Index
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Despite the use of extern, this statement defines pi Storage is allocated and initialized An This popular tutorial introduction to standard initializer completely updated, reorganized, and rewritten extern declaration may include anC++ has beenonly if it appears outside a functionto help
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programmers learn the language faster and use it in a more modern, effective wayJust as C++ has evolved since the last edition, so an extern that is initialized is They now introduce the C++ standard library from definition giving Because has the authors' approach to teaching ittreated as a definition, any subseqentthe beginning, of that readers the means to write variable is an error: useful programs without first having to master every language detail Highlighting today's best practices, they show how to write programs that are safe, can be built quickly, and yet offer outstanding performance Examples that take advantage of the library, and explain the features of C++, also show how to make the best use of the extern double pi = 31416; // definition language As in its previous editions, the book's authoritative discussion of fundamental C++ concepts and techniques makes it a valuable resource even for more experienced programmersProgram Fasterpi More Effectively with This Rewritten double pi; // error: redefinition of and Classic Restructured for quicker learning, using the C++ standard library Updated to teach the most current programming styles and program design techniques Filled with new learning aids that emphasize important points, warn about common pitfalls, suggest good programming practices, and provide general usage tips Complete with exercises that reinforce skills learned Authoritative and comprehensive in its coverageThe source an for the book's also an error: Similarly, a subsequent extern declaration that has code initializer isextended examples is available on the Web at the address below
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extern double pi = 31416; // definition extern double pi; // ok: declaration not definition extern double pi = 31416; // error: redefinition ofpi
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The distinction between a declaration and a definition may seem pedantic but in fact is quite important
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In C++ a variable must be defined exactly once and must be defined or declared before it is used
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Any variable that is used in more than one file requires declarations that are separate from the variable's definition In such cases, one file will contain the definition for the variable Other files that use that same variable will contain declarations forbut not a definition ofthat same variable
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C++ Primer, Exercises Section Fourth Edition 235 By Stanley B Lippman,Jos e Lajoie, Barbara E Moo Publisher:Addison Wesley Exercise Explain the meaning of each of these instances of name: Professional 218: Date: February 14, 2005 Pub Print ISBN: 0-201-72148-1 extern std::string name; Pages: 912
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