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There is no constraint on the number of constructors we may declare for a class, provided that the parameter list of each constructor is unique How can we know which or how many constructors to define Ordinarily, constructors differ in ways that allow the user to specify differing ways to initialize the data members For example, we might logically extend our Sales_item class by providing two additional constructors: one that would let users provide an initial value for the isbn and another that would let them initialize the object by reading an istream object:
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class Sales_item; // other members as before public: // added constructors to initialize from a string or an istream Sales_item(const std::string&); Sales_item(std::istream&); Sales_item(); };
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Arguments Determine Which Constructor to Use
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Our class now defines three constructors We could use any of these constructors when defining new objects:
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C++ Primer, Fourth Edition
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// uses the By Stanley B Lippman,Jos e Lajoie, default constructor: Barbara E Moo // isbnis the empty string;units_soldand revenue are 0 Sales_item empty; // specifiesPublisher:Addison Wesley an explicit isbn;units_soldand revenue are 0 Professional Sales_item Primer_3rd_Ed("0-201-82470-1"); Pub from February input into // reads values Date:the standard 14, 2005isbn, units_sold,and revenue Print ISBN: 0-201-72148-1 Sales_item Primer_4th_ed(cin);
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Pages: 912
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Table of Contents | Index
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The argument type(s) used to initialize an object determines which constructor is used In the definition of empty, there is no initializer, so the default constructor is run The constructor This popular tutorial introduction to standard C++ has been completely updated, reorganized, and rewritten to help that takes a single string argument is used to initialize Primer_3rd_ed; the one that takes a programmers learn the language faster and use it in a more modern, effective wayJust as C++ has evolved since the last reference to an istream initializes Primer_4th_ed
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edition, so has the authors' approach to teaching it They now introduce the C++ standard library from the beginning, giving readers the means to write useful programs without first having to master every language detail Highlighting today's best practices, they show how to write programs that are safe, can be built quickly, and yet offer outstanding performance Examples that take advantage of the library, and explain the features of C++, also show how to make the best use of the language As in its previous editions, the book's authoritative discussion of fundamental C++ concepts and techniques makes it a compiler runs a for more experienced programmersProgram the and is created: Thevaluable resource evenconstructor whenever an object of FastertypeMore Effectively with This Rewritten Classic Restructured for quicker learning, using the C++ standard library Updated to teach the most current programming styles and program design techniques Filled with new learning aids that emphasize important points, warn about common pitfalls,// constructor that takes a string used to create and usage tips variable with exercises that reinforce skills suggest good programming practices, and provide general initialize Complete learned Authoritative and comprehensive in its coverageThe source code for the book's extended examples is available on Sales_item Primer_2nd_ed("0-201-54848-8"); the Web at the address below used to initialize unnamed object on the heap // default constructor
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Sales_item *p = new Sales_item();
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In the first case, the constructor that takes a string is run to initialize the variable named Primer_2nd_ed In the second case, a new Sales_item object is allocated dynamically Assuming that the allocation succeeds, then the object is initialized by running the default constructor
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Constructors for const Objects
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A constructor may not be declared as const (Section 771, p 260):
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class Sales_item { public: Sales_item() const; };
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// error
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There is no need for a const constructor When we create a const object of a class type, an ordinary constructor is run to initialize the const object The job of the constructor is to initialize an object A constructor is used to initialize an object regardless of whether the object is const
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C++ Primer, Exercises Section Fourth Edition 124 By Stanley B Lippman,Jos e Lajoie, Barbara E Moo Publisher:Addison Wesley Exercise Provide one or more constructors that allows the user of this Professional 1219: Date: February 14, 2005values for none or all of the data Pub class to specify initial Print elements of this class: ISBN: 0-201-72148-1 Pages: 912
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