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Promotions or conversions are applied when the type of the argument can be promoted or converted to the appropriate parameter type using one of the standard conversions One important point to realize is that the small integral types promote to int Given two functions, one of which takes an int and the other a short, the int version will be a better match for a value of any integral type other than short, even though short might appear on the surface to be a better match:
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void ff(int); void ff(short); ff('a'); // charpromotes to int, so matches f(int)
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A character literal is type char, and chars are promoted to int That promoted type matches the type of the parameter of function ff(int) A char could also be converted to short, but a conversion is a "less good" match than a promotion And so this call will be resolved as a call toff (int) A conversion that is done through a promotion is preferred to another standard conversion So, for example, a char is a better match for a function taking an int than it is for a function taking a double All other standard conversions are treated as equivalent The conversion fromchar to unsigned char , for example, does not take precedence over the conversion from char to double As a concrete example, consider:
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extern void manip(long); extern void manip(float);
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manip(314);
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// error: ambiguous call
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C++ Primer, Fourth Edition By Stanley is a double That type could be converted to either long or float The literal constant 314B Lippman,Jos e Lajoie, Barbara possible standard conversions, the call is ambiguous No one standard Because there are two E Moo conversion is given precedence over another Publisher:Addison Wesley Professional Pub Date: February 14, 2005 Matching and Enumerations Print ISBN: 0-201-72148-1 Pages: 912
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Parameter
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Table of Contents | Index
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Recall that an object of enum type may be initialized only by another object of that enum type or one of its enumerators (Section 27, p 63) An integral object that happens to have the same value as an enumerator cannot be used to call a function expecting an enum argument:
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This popular tutorial introduction to standard C++ has been completely updated, reorganized, and rewritten to help enum Tokens {INLINE and use VIRTUAL = 129}; programmers learn the language faster = 128,it in a more modern, effective wayJust as C++ has evolved since the last edition,void ff(Tokens); so has the authors' approach to teaching it They now introduce the C++ standard library from the beginning, giving void ff(int); readers the means to write useful programs without first having to master every language detail Highlighting today's best int main() { practices, they show how to write programs that are safe, can be built quickly, and yet offer outstanding performance Tokens curTok = INLINE; Examples that take advantage of the library, and explain the features of C++, also show how to make the best use of the // exactly matches ff(int) language As ff(128); editions, the book's authoritative discussion of fundamental C++ concepts and techniques makes in its previous ff(INLINE);more experienced programmersProgram Faster and More Effectively with This Rewritten it a valuable resource even for // exactly matches ff(Tokens) ff(curTok); // exactly matches ff(Tokens) Classic Restructured for quicker learning, using the C++ standard library Updated to teach the most current programming return 0; styles and program design techniques Filled with new learning aids that emphasize important points, warn about common pitfalls,} suggest good programming practices, and provide general usage tips Complete with exercises that reinforce skills learned Authoritative and comprehensive in its coverageThe source code for the book's extended examples is available on the Web at the address below
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The call that passes the literal 128 matches the version of ff that takes an int Although we cannot pass an integral value to a enum parameter, we can pass an enum to a parameter of integral type When we do so, the enum value promotes to int or to a larger integral type The actual promotion type depends on the values of the enumerators If the function is overloaded, the type to which the enum promotes determines which function is called:
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void newf(unsigned char); void newf(int); unsigned char uc = 129; newf(VIRTUAL); // callsnewf(int) newf(uc); // callsnewf(unsigned char)
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Theenum Tokens has only two enumerators, the largest of which has a value of 129 That value can be represented by the type unsigned char , and many compilers would store the enum as an unsigned char However, the type of VIRTUAL is not unsigned char Enumerators and values of an enum type, are not promoted to unsigned char , even if the values of the enumerators would fit
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When using overloaded functions with enum parameters, remember: Two enumeration types may behave quite differently C++ Primer, Fourth Edition during function overload resolution, depending on the value of By Stanley B Lippman, constants their enumeration Jos e Lajoie, The enumerators determine the Barbara E Moo type to which they promote And that type is machine-dependent
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Publisher:Addison Wesley Professional Pub Date: February 14, 2005 Print ISBN: 0-201-72148-1 Pages: 912
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