SQLJ and JDBC: Database Access in Java in Java

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SQLJ and JDBC: Database Access in Java
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In this chapter we will look at SQLJ and JDBC, the two standard ways of using objectrelational databases in Java programs. Java is the language of choice for writing Internet applications, and SQL is the prime language for programming databases. SQLJ and JDBC are important technologies that provide the bridge between front-end Java applications and back-end SQL databases. The first question that comes to mind is: Why do we need two ways Why is one, just SQLJ or only JDBC, not enough The answer is that JDBC and SQLJ are meant to serve distinct but complementary purposes SQLJ supports embedded SQL whereas JDBC is an application program interface, and SQLJ typically uses JDBC under the covers to execute SQL operations. But before we dive into their differences, let us first look at when and why these database programming frameworks came into existence.
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A Bit of Background
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Java is an object-oriented language. Object-oriented programming is based on the concept of objects and classes. A class is used to group logically related data into a modular unit and to provide methods that encapsulate the behavior associated with this data. An object is an instance of a class. Object-oriented languages such as Smalltalk and C++ have been widely used for a number of years. Java combines their good features but eliminates much of the complexity of C++. It also emphasizes robustness and portability across different platforms. Java is strongly typed; that is, each Java object has a specific type that defines its attributes and methods. Most type errors are caught while 53
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compiling Java programs, thus promoting robustness. Additionally, only safe memory operations are permitted in Java. Unlike a C or C++ program, a Java program cannot perform unsafe and arbitrary pointer operations on data residing in memory. Java also provides automatic garbage collection that reclaims memory of objects no longer used in a program, as in Smalltalk. As the use of Java took off among the programming community in the mid-1990s, designers at Sun Microsystems saw the need to support database access from Java programs. Working with the major database vendors, in 1996 they specified a proposal for JDBC. The JDBC specification [JDBC Spec] defines a set of interfaces for SQL-based database access from Java. JDBC is an application program interface (API), which means that SQL statements are executed on a database by calling methods in the JDBC library from Java code. The JDBC programming model is based on ODBC, which is an earlier standard for database programming. The JDBC API soon became the de-facto standard for database programming in Java. Shortly after, the major database companies initiated a joint effort to design and standardize embedded SQL support in Java. This language is known as SQLJ. The open-source SQLJ Reference Implementation was made publicly available by Oracle in early 1998, and around that time the SQLJ language was also submitted to ANSI for standardization. It was formally accepted as an ANSI standard in December 1998. Now let's get back to our original question What is the goal of SQLJ Why do we need SQLJ if we already have JDBC Here's why: In contrast to the library calls in JDBC, SQLJ allows SQL statements to be written directly inside Java code using the compact and convenient #sql notation, as in the code snippet shown in Listing 3.1. The intent of the code should be intuitively obvious, but let us look into the details to better understand how it actually works.
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SQLJ Basics
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SQLJ consists of several different aspects: The SQLJ language with special syntax for embedding SQL statements A translator that converts SQLJ code to Java The SQLJ runtime/execution model We will examine each of these topics briefly in the sections that follow.
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String name = "Joe Doe"; String phone = "(650)123-4567"; #sql { INSERT INTO PHONES (name, phnumber) VALUES (:name, :phone) };
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