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A database designer specifies the structural constraints of an enterprise in the EER conceptual model by using cardinality ratios in conjunction with partial/total participation constraints or by using min-max pairs. Figure 2.1 specifies structural constraints using cardinality ratios (1:1, 1:N, M:N) and participation constraints. Cardinality ratios on the edges of a relationship indicate the number of times an entity is related to another entity in the relationship. For example, the WorksIn relationship in Figure 2.1 has a 1:N cardinality ratio since a Faculty member works in one Department and a Department has many Faculty members working in it. Participation constraints are given by the edges; a single edge represents partial participation in the relationship and a double edge represents total participation. For example, a Faculty member must work in a Department but a Department does not have to have Faculty members working in it. Min-max pairs can be used in the EER model to provide an alternative specification to the structural constraints shown in Figure 2.1. A min-max pair, denoted as "(min,max)", labels the edge between an entity and the relationship, indicating the minimum and maximum times that an entity participates in a relationship instance. For example, consider the participation of the Faculty entity in the WorksIn relationship of Figure 2.1. Since Faculty has total participation in WorksIn, a Faculty entity must be related to a Department. Furthermore, the cardinality ratio indicates that a Faculty entity can be related to only one Department. Therefore, the edge between Faculty and WorksIn can alternatively be labeled with the min-max pair (1,1). Since a Department does not have to participate in the WorksIn relationship, but it can participate many times, the edge between Department and WorksIn can be labeled by the min-max pair (0,n). In this example, adding the min-max pairs to the diagram of Figure 2.1 would be redundant since no additional semantics is provided beyond the participation and cardinality constraints. However, if the enterprise were changed to require that a department have a minimum of 6 faculty members working in it, then the min-max pair (6,n) on the edge between Department and WorksIn would provide additional information. The structural constraints of the EER model are referred to as multiplicity in UML, indicating the number of times an object participates in an association. The placement of the multiplicity constraints on the UML diagram is similar to that of the placement of cardinality ratios in the EER diagram, although multiplicity is more closely related to min-max pairs. The multiplicity, specified as "min..max", indicates the minimum and maximum number of times that an object participates in an association. There are several shorthand notations available for multiplicity. A 1 indicates a 1..1 multiplicity, and * indicates a 0..infinity multiplicity. A minimum of 0 indicates partial participation in the association, where a minimum of at least 1 indicates a total participation in the association. As shown in Figure 2.2, CampusClub has a multiplicity of 1 in the Advises association, indicating that a CampusClub must have exactly one advisor. However, Faculty has a multiplicity of * in the Advises association, indicating that a Faculty entity does not have to be the advisor of a CampusClub, but potentially can be the advisor of several CampusClubs. The goal of conceptual design is to capture graphically the constraints of the enterprise being modeled. Both EER diagrams and conceptual class diagrams are useful for representing many constraints, but they cannot represent every constraint. Therefore, a conceptual class diagram allows for the specification of constraint rules. A constraint rule is specified in a free-form syntax within curly braces. For example, for multi-
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