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and discussion of SQLJ and JDBC. It is interesting that the two technologies actually complement one another and can be used together. For many organizations, moving to object-relational databases may not be possible or appropriate. However, new requirements may still arise that use data in existing relational databases. If this is coupled with the need to access that data using an OO programming language such as C++ or Java, then one possibility is to use a mapping tool. Hand coding is also possible, but if the mapping is complex, it may be better to buy rather than build. Today, there are many object-to-relational mapping tool vendors. In fact, the focus of many of these vendors is specifically Java-to-relational mapping, for reasons mentioned earlier. Some of the early pioneering work in object-to-relational mapping and object mediators was undertaken by Keller and Wiederhold. In 4, "Penguin: Objects for Programs, Relations for Persistence," they discuss some of the practical and pragmatic reasons why it is necessary, and give a good tutorial on the subject.
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Mapping UML Diagrams to Object-Relational Schemas in Oracle 8
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The recent emergence of object-oriented design tools and object-relational database technology into the commercial market has caused new challenges for the implementation of conceptual database designs. The process of database design typically involves the development of a conceptual schema that uses a high-level conceptual modeling language, such as the Extended Entity-Relationship (EER) model [Elmasri 2000]. The conceptual design is then mapped to the model of the target database system that is to be used for implementation of the application. Although well-defined mapping procedures exist for mapping EER and EER-like schemas into relational database designs, very little work has been done to define the mapping of object-oriented schemas, such as class diagrams in UML [Fowler 1997], into object-relational database schemas. The Unified Modeling Language (UML) is a standard modeling language that provides a graphical notation to represent the design of object-oriented software. UML is the integration of popular object-oriented analysis and design methods, resulting from a wealth of research in this area in the late 1980s and early 1990s. The Object Management Group (OMG) is the organization that is leading the standardization process [OMG 1999]. Object-relational technology [Stonebraker 1996], on the other hand, extends the traditional notion of the relational table with the notion of object tables, where the tuples of an object table generate object identifiers as in the instances of classes in object-oriented database systems. Relationships between tables are then established through the use of object references. Path expressions can be also incorporated into SQL queries to provide a more concise, object-oriented approach to query expression. Furthermore, object-relational models incorporate the notion of userdefined types, or abstract data types, in addition to providing built-in support for large objects and aggregate types such as sets, arrays, and nested tables. As a result, attributes 29
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within an object table or traditional relational table are no longer limited to atomic values. The presence of these features requires a new look at how to use object-relational concepts effectively in the implementation of object-oriented conceptual designs. This chapter presents our experience with using the Oracle 8 object-relational model [Oracle 1999] in the implementation of UML class diagrams. The results presented are based on our initial work with using object-relational database concepts within an engineering application [Tjahjadi 1997]; [Urban 2000]. In particular, the work in "The Design and Implementation of an EXPRESS to Oracle 8 Mapping" and "A Case Study in Mapping Conceptual Designs to Object-Relational Schemas" provides a detailed description of mapping EXPRESS conceptual schemas into object-relational schemas in Oracle 8, where EXPRESS is a standard for conceptual modeling within the engineering design domain [Schenck 1994]. Since UML has become an industry standard for expressing object-oriented designs, this chapter revisits many of these mapping issues in the context of UML to address a broader audience of database designers. Although there are differences between the object-relational models that are currently available by different database vendors, the mappings should provide a model of mapping techniques that can be modified for use in systems other than Oracle 8. We are currently teaching these mapping issues in an advanced undergraduate database course at Arizona State University that covers object-relational database technology [CSE494DB 2000]. The work presented in this chapter, together with the original work in "The Design and Implementation of an EXPRESS to Oracle 8 Mapping" on which it is based, provides one of the first descriptions of conceptual-to-object-relational mapping procedures. In "Object Database Development: Concepts and Principles" [Embley 1997], Embley provides a brief overview of a case study that maps a database application designed using the Object-Oriented Systems Model into the UniSQL object-relational system. Specific details of how to use object-relational features, however, are not provided. Grimes [Grimes 1998] also provides an overview of commercial tools that support the generation of object-relational schemas for systems such as Oracle 8, the IBM DB2 Universal Database, and the Informix-Dynamic Server. As described in "Modeling Object/Relational Databases," however, most of these tools are still immature and functionally incomplete. Furthermore, a significant problem with these existing tools is that they do not provide sufficient methodological support to help the user understand how to use object-relational features. Rational Software Corporation, for example, provides a tool for generating Oracle 8 schemas from UML diagrams [Rational 1998]. The user, however, must already understand how object-oriented modeling concepts map to object-relational features in order to construct UML diagrams with appropriate Oracle 8 class stereotypes. The stereotypes provide Rational Rose with instructions on how to generate the Oracle 8 schema. In fact, Grimes states [Grimes 1998] that object-relational database systems have not yet entered the mainstream and, at this point, are more likely to be used by advanced users that are willing to skip conceptual modeling. The mapping procedures described in this chapter represent an initial step towards defining a methodology for generating object-relational schemas from object-oriented designs such as those provided by UML. The following sections provide an overview of UML notation as well as a comparison of UML to EER notation. A sample application is also presented to support examples of mapping issues. After providing an overview of the object-relational features supported by Oracle 8, we then elaborate on the generation of object-relational
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