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Luckily, you can perform this effect digitally as well. As previously discussed, a sound wave oscillates above and below a center equilibrium point. Figure 10-1 represented a simple sine wave. If the wave is inverted, turning it upside down, as in Figure 10-2, it is transformed into a vertically mirrored image of itself.
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FIGURE 10-2: The same waveform as Figure 10-1, inverted (180 degrees out of phase)
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Both sound waves will have the same frequencies at the same amplitudes. The magic comes when you add these waves together. Because the first wave is always equal and opposite from the second wave, their sum always adds up to exactly zero a flat line. This has the effect of creating complete silence. This experiment would not be so interesting by itself except for the fact that in a stereo recording, any track that is panned to the direct center has precisely the same component waveform in both the left and the right channel. If you were to invert either the left or right channel, turning it upside down, and then sum it with the other channel, you could totally eliminate the center frequencies.
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An OOPSed (left-minus-right) signal is called the side channel, and a left-plus-right signal is called the mid channel. A left/right waveform can be converted to a mid/side waveform and back again to left/right without any signal degradation.
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Here is a simple example to demonstrate this phenomenon. Figures 10-3, 10-4, and 10-5 show three waves that have been added together in a mixdown (10-6 panned rhythmic pattern.wav on this book s CD-ROM). Panned hard left is a snare, designated as L (Figure 10-3). Panned hard right is a hi-hat, designated as R (Figure 10-4). Panned dead center is the kick drum, designated as C (Figure 10-5). Together they add up to a very simple drum pattern.
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FIGURE 10-3: The snare drum, L, to be panned left
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FIGURE 10-4: The hi-hat wave, R, to be panned right
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FIGURE 10-5: The kick, C, to be panned center
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Figure 10-6 shows the mixed-down stereo waveform, with the kick drum panned to the center, the snare drum panned hard left, and the hi-hat panned hard right. Notice that the kick drum can be seen in both channels, while in the left (upper) channel the snare drum can also be seen. In the right (lower) channel, the hi-hat can be seen, mixed in with the kick.
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FIGURE 10-6: The mixdown waveform with L+C in the left channel and R+C in the right channel
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When presented with only the final mixdown, you would ideally like to be able to extract all three of these signals from a two-channel stereo recording. Figure 10-7 shows an attempt to do this, using only phase cancellation techniques. First, the right channel is inverted, turning the hi-hat and right-panned kick upside down. At first glance, this looks almost identical to the previous waveform, but if you look closely, you ll notice that the upward and downward spikes in the right (lower) channel are reversed.
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FIGURE 10-7: The same mixdown wave, with the right channel inverted L+C in the left channel and R-C in the right channel
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Then, you can simply sum up the two channels in a standard stereo-to-mono conversion, shown in Figure 10-8. You add L+C to -R-C, and the center channels cancel each other out, leaving you with just L-R. This is a mono waveform representing the left channel minus the right channel. Notice that the center channel has been entirely eliminated, leaving you with the snare from the left channel summed up with the inverted hi-hat from the right channel, but without the kick that was originally panned center.
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A quick way to perform an OOPS phase inversion in Adobe Audition is to select Effects Amplitude Channel Mixer, choose the Vocal Cut preset, and click OK.
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FIGURE 10-8: The stereo wave converted into mono, with the center channel eliminated
Now that you have a sound wave with both the snare and the hi-hat, it is tempting to try to get the center-panned kick by itself. After all, the center is where the vocals are usually panned. If you were to take the resultant L-R wave and simply add it to the right channel of the original wave, R+C, you would end up with a wave representing L-R+R+C, or simply L+C, which is the left channel of the original wave. Alternatively, you could invert the L-R wave, creating an R-L wave, and add it to the left channel of the original wave, or L+C. You would end up with L+C+R-L, or C+R, the right channel of the original wave. What if you converted the original signal to mono and then subtracted the snare/hi-hat wave from it Converting the original wave to mono gives you L+C summed with R+C, or L+2C+R. Subtracting your snare/hi-hat wave would give you (L+2C+R) (L-R), or 2C+2R, an amplified version of the right channel of the original wave. So you are unable to isolate the center channel using this technique. You are also unable to create a stereo signal of the left channel and the right channel without the center channel, preserving the stereo panning of the L and R signals, although with some fairly straightforward manipulation you can eliminate the center channel, creating a single mono wave. The fact is, no matter how you manipulate these signals, you simply cannot isolate L, R, or C using this method. Many aspiring mashup artists have wasted many hours trying.
There s a list of Beatles tracks that respond well to OOPS effects at www.beatletracks .com/btoops.html. The tracks listed respond well to other techniques in this chapter as well.