Biometric Encryption: The New Breed of Untraceable Biometrics in .NET

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Biometric Encryption: The New Breed of Untraceable Biometrics
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Figure 26.7. Anonymous database controlled by BE.
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scheme. Then the pointer to Alice s medical record is regenerated from the PIN. Bob recovers Alice s encrypted medical record (or a part of it, also encrypted) and sends it to Alice. She decrypts it using the symmetric key that was also regenerated from her PIN. Bob (the database administrator) has an assurance that Alice is, in fact, who she claims to be (she was able to unlock her helper data in the doctor s of ce); he is also assured that her medical record was sent to the right person. At the same time, Alice retains full control over her medical record, so that even Bob (the database administrator) has no access to it, since he does not have the symmetric key to decrypt it. The privacy protection is embedded into the system at a very low technological level. There might be many other versions and potential applications of BE-based anonymous databases. For example, in an application that requires somewhat lower level of security, Alice uses a fully anonymous database as a repository of her personal data. The data are encrypted by conventional means. Both the symmetric key(s) and the pointer to the data are controlled by BE. The helper data are stored on Alice s smart card. When Alice wants to remotely access her data, she presents a fresh biometric sample to recover her key. The key is used to regenerate the pointer, which is sent to the database to retrieve the Alice s data. The encrypted data are sent back to Alice. She can decrypt the data by using the symmetric key, which is also regenerated from the key that she recovered from her biometric. The advantages of such a system over a password-based system are that: r It provides the who you are (as opposed to what you know ) user authentication. r The key bound to the biometric is much longer than a password, thus providing a cryptographic-level strength to the rest of the system.
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26.7 Privacy and Security Advantages of BE
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Biometric Matching in Encrypted Domain [142]
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Conventional cryptography does not tolerate a key with even a single bit error. Therefore, because of the natural variability of biometric samples, matching in the encrypted domain has been deemed impossible. However, in a recent publication [142], Bringer and Chabanne showed that this can be achieved using a combination of BE with a Goldwasser Micali homomorphic encryption. In this encryption scheme, a pair of public, pk, and secret (private), sk, keys is generated. One bit at a time is encrypted, so that, in order to encrypt a binary string, m, every bit must be encrypted individually. The Goldwasser Micali scheme possesses a homomorphic property: Enc(m) Enc(m ) = Enc(m m ), where denotes the bitwise XOR operation. This encryption can be combined with the fuzzy commitment BE scheme in the following way: The biometric system consists of three major components: a service provider, a sensor client, and a storage. On enrollment, the service provider generates a Goldwasser Micali (pk, sk) key pair and publishes pk. The client captures the user s biometric and creates the binary biometric template, b. A random ECC codeword, c, is generated and XOR-ed with the template, c b. The result is encrypted with pk to obtain Enc(c b) and is put into the storage. Also, a hashed codeword, Hash(c), is stored separately by the service provider. On veri cation, a fresh template, b , is obtained by the client. The encrypted (with pk) template, Enc(b ), is sent to the storage. Alternatively, Enc(c b) can be retrieved from the storage by the client. Then, using the homomorphic property of the Goldwasser Micali encryption, the product is computed: Enc(c b) Enc(b ) = Enc(c b b ). The result is sent to the service provider, where it is decrypted with the private key sk to obtain c b b . Then the ECC decoder obtains a codeword c . Finally, the service provider checks if Hash(c) = Hash(c ). Neither the service provider nor the storage ever obtain the biometric data, which stay encrypted during the whole process. The BE template, c b, is stored in the encrypted form. Since the codeword, c, is not stored anywhere, the BE template cannot be substituted or tampered. Overall, this system would solve most security problems mentioned in Section 26.6. Bringer and Chabanne [142] also proposed using yet another homomorphic encryption, Paillier, on top of Goldwasser Micali to further enhance the privacy and security protection for the database application. It should be noted that the XOR-based fuzzy commitment is the only BE scheme suitable for this system. There are dif culties in the practical implementation of the proposed system [142] relating to the large size of the encrypted template and to the computation costs. A somewhat similar biometric system that uses a homomorphic encryption but without BE was proposed by Schoenmakers and Tuyls [143]. It can be viewed as a method for cancelable biometrics and, like any other CB scheme, is vulnerable to
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