Biometric Encryption: The New Breed of Untraceable Biometrics in .NET

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Biometric Encryption: The New Breed of Untraceable Biometrics
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of public and private keys is generated from the PIN. Those keys are periodically updated. Some applications may require different PINs, in which case several BE templates can be stored. A proper template can be automatically recognized by the application. The system based on digital signatures may be adopted for both remote and local access. The important point is that the most critical part of any cryptosystem, the PIN (or a password), is securely bound to the biometrics. To summarize, Alice has in her possession and under her control as many BE templates as necessary. She can use them to digitally sign in, either for remote authentication or for logical or physical access. The authentication is done simply by checking the validity of her digital signature using standard cryptographic means. Neither Alice s biometric nor her PIN are stored or revealed. As a result, the system is both secure and highly privacy-protective. Note that BE can be seamlessly integrated into public key infrastructure (PKI) or other cryptographic scheme. This is an important advantage of BE over CB, since the latter does not bind a key to biometrics. Travel Documents
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To illustrate how BE can protect the user s privacy when using biometrics for travel documents and, at the same time, improve the level of security, we will consider a system (Figure 26.6) proposed by van der Veen et al. [71] (see also reference 3).
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Figure 26.6. Three-way check of travel documents using BE (Adapted from reference 71).
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26.7 Privacy and Security Advantages of BE
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The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) develops the standards for machine-readable travel documents (MRTD) including the so-called ePassport. Among the recommendations is the three-way check for secure veri cation at the border. This involves comparing data originating from (i) the biometric sensor, (ii) the biometric image stored on the ePassport, and (iii) biometric data stored in external (centralized) databases. BE technology provides the opportunity to do this in a privacy-preserving way [3, 71]. In addition to biometric templates stored on the ePassport, their secure versions (i.e., helper data and hashed keys) are also stored in a third-party database. The biometric images or conventional templates are not stored in the database. A threeway check is then performed by matching the helper data from the database with the live biometric measurements and the biometric data on the ePassport. As shown in Figure 26.6, a key is obtained from the live biometric (key1) and from the image stored on ePassport (key2). A positive authentication is achieved when all three hashed versions are exactly the same. The database is inherently secure, meaning that there is no need for complicated encryption and key management protocols. The ePassport is protected against tampering, since neither a potential attacker nor anybody else knows the key that was used to create the helper data.
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Suppose that a clinic, a hospital, or a network of hospitals maintains a database of medical records. Alice does not want her record to be accessed by unauthorized personnel or third parties, even for statistical purposes. To address this, her record is made anonymous and encrypted (by conventional means). The only public entry in the database is her personal identi er, which may be her real name or, in certain cases (e.g., drug addiction clinic), an alias ( Jane Doe ). The link between Alice s identi er and her medical record is controlled by BE. As shown in Figure 26.7, a BE template (helper data) is created on enrollment from Alice s biometrics and a randomly generated PIN (Alice does not even know the PIN). The PIN is used to generate a pointer to Alice s medical record and a symmetric key that encrypts the record, and also a pair of public and private keys (similar to the Case Scenario 2). The helper data and the public key are associated with Alice s ID and stored in the database (they can also be stored on Alice s smart card). Other temporary data, such as Alice s biometrics, the PIN, the private key, the pointer, and the symmetric key, are discarded. Suppose that Alice visits a doctor, to whom she wants to grant remote access to her medical record, or part of it, if the record is structured. From the doctor s of ce, Alice makes a request to the database administrator, Bob. The authentication procedure using a challenge/response scheme is similar to that in Case Scenario 2 (see reference 3 for more details): Alice applies her live biometric sample to the helper data and recovers her PIN on-the- y. This allows Bob to verify Alice s identity using a challenge response
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