Biometric Encryption: The New Breed of Untraceable Biometrics in .NET

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Biometric Encryption: The New Breed of Untraceable Biometrics
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In this section, we examine how untraceable biometric technologies help to minimize the privacy-invasiveness of biometric systems. Untraceable biometrics (UB) is the term we created to de ne privacy-enhancing biometric technologies. The features of UB are as follows: r There is no storage of biometric image or conventional biometric template. r The original biometric image/template cannot be recreated from the stored information; that is, it is untraceable. r A large number of untraceable templates for the same biometric can be created for different applications. r The untraceable templates from different applications cannot be linked. r The untraceable template can be revoked or canceled. These features embody standard fair information principles, providing user control, data minimization, and data security. Untraceable biometrics include two major groups of emerging technologies: biometric encryption (BE) and cancelable biometrics (CB). BE technologies securely bind a digital key to a biometric, or generate a key from the biometric, so that neither the key nor the biometric can be retrieved from the stored BE template, also called biometrically encrypted key or helper data. The key is recreated only if the correct biometric sample is presented on veri cation, so the output of BE veri cation is either a key or a failure message. Currently, any viable BE system requires that biometric dependent helper data be stored.2 In essence, the key is encrypted with the biometric. This encryption/decryption process is fuzzy because of the natural variability of biometric samples. BE is also known by terms such as biometric cryptosystem, fuzzy extractor, secure sketch, helper data systems, biometric locking, biometric key generation, and so on. CB technologies apply a transform (which is usually kept secret) to the original biometric and store the transformed template. The transform can be either invertible or, preferably, not. On veri cation, the same transform is applied to a fresh biometric sample, and the matching is done between two transformed templates. The output of CB veri cation is a Yes/No response, as in the conventional biometrics. Our classi cation of privacy-enhancing biometric technologies, however, is somewhat different than that proposed by Ratha et al. [14]. Ratha et al. divide the technologies into the following categories: biometric salting, biometric key generation (without the use of additional information), fuzzy schemes, and noninvertible transforms. While these categories capture the most important works to date, this terminology also has some shortcomings. For example, the Mytec BE scheme [15] is
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the present-day perspective, the only exception might be the future use of DNA testing as a biometric. However, since the DNA testing would create huge practical and privacy related problems, we will not discuss it in this chapter.
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26.3 Introduction to Untraceable Biometrics (UB)
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put into the salting category. While it does use the salting technique, Mytec s scheme is fundamentally a fuzzy scheme since it does a true binding of a key to biometrics without resorting to obscurity. The other salting schemes are closer to noninvertible transforms. Second, all key generation schemes have, in fact, some kind of biometricdependent helper data (check bits in Davida et al. [16, 17]; history le in Monrose et al. [18 21]). And third, some CB technologies (e.g., references 22, 23, and 24) do not fall into any of these categories. In our opinion, there are only two main categories of untraceable biometrics, BE and CB. These terminologies ascend to the pioneer works of G. Tomko et al. [25] on BE and N. Ratha et al. [1, 26] on CB. Both terms correctly re ect the most distinctive features of each category: BE is focused on biometrically managing cryptographic keys/passwords, while CB aims at making the conventional biometric template cancelable (note that BE also possesses this revocability property). We use the terms BE and CB in a broad sense and, therefore, prefer the term biometric encryption to biometric cryptosystem [27, 28] (BE is intended to be a part of a larger cryptosystem where it replaces the passwords).
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