Privacy in Biometrics in .NET

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Table 25.1. Applicative Aspects Concerning the Privacy (According to the IBG) Lower Risk of Privacy Invasiveness Greater Overt Optional Veri cation Fixed period Private sector Individual, customer Enrollee Personal storage Behavioral Templates Covert Mandatory Identi cation Inde nite Public sector Employee, citizen Institution Database storage Physiological Images
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in most cases, is not carried out in the same place of the acquisition (typically, the biometric data are sent through a network to a database for the comparisons). Also the duration of the retention of the biometric data impacts the privacy risk. If retention expires in a xed period of time, the privacy risk is reduced. Best practice notions require that every project which encompasses biometric data retention should always explicitly state its duration. Different risks are present with respect to the sector of application: The biometric setups in the public sector are considered to be more susceptible to privacyinvasiveness than the same installations in the private sector. Also the role of the individuals that use the biometric system has great impact on the privacy. There roles have an increasing privacy risk: individual, customer, employee, citizen. The most relevant privacy invasion is related to the association of the fundamental rights of the individual to a biometric identity test. The privacy risks are lower in the applications where the individuals retain usage rights over the biometric data. Also the storage method of the biometric data affects the privacy risk. The worst case is when they are all stored in a central database, out of the user s control. The best case is when the user personally holds the biometric data for example, when the personal biometric information is stored only on a smart card belonging to the users. The distinction between behavioral and physiological traits is relevant with respect to the privacy risks. The physiological data (such as ngerprints, or iris templates) can be used in a more invasive manner. This is related to the fact that the physiological traits are the most stable in time, and they are characterized by very high veri cation/identi cation accuracies. On the other hand, the behavioral traits tend to be less accurate, and, most of the time, they request the user collaboration. Also, the storage format is relevant: Templates are usually carrying much less information than the original sample/images. While they are less powerful when used as direct identi able data, they are privacy-invasive.
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25.2 Biometric Traits and Privacy Table 25.2. Data Collection Approaches Approach Protective Sympathetic Neutral Invasive Examples
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Enterprise security, account-holder veri cation Application of the best practice notions in common applications Personal PCA, home PC, access control Surveillance, some centralized national ID services
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Another useful taxonomy concerns the different approaches for biometric data collection and storing. The IBG classi es four different classes concerning the privacy protection (Table 25.2): protective, invasive, neutral, sympathetic [4]. A privacy-protective system is designed to protect or limit the access to personal information, providing a means for an individual to establish a trusted identity. In this case, the biometric systems use biometrics data to protect personal information that might otherwise be copied, stolen, or misused. A privacy-sympathetic system limits access/usage to personal data. A privacysympathetic approach encompasses the speci c design of elements able to protect biometric data from unauthorized access and usage. Also, the storage and the transmission of biometric data must be informed, if not driven, by privacy concerns. In a privacy-neutral system, privacy aspects are not important or the potential privacy impact is slight. Privacy-neutral systems are designed to be dif cultly misused with regard to privacy issues, but they do not have the capability to protect personal privacy. A privacy-invasive system facilitates or enables the usage of personal data in a fashion that is contrary to privacy principles. In privacy-invasive systems, personal data are used for purposes broader than what originally intended. Systems that facilitate the linkage of personal data without an individual s consent, as well as those in which personal data are loosely protected, belong to this class.
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