Introduction in .NET

Integration qr-codes in .NET Introduction
20.1 Introduction
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application to signature veri cation. In [15], ngerprints are regenerated from the orientation map of the minutia template.
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Biometric Template Security: State of the Art
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As evident from the previous discussion, template protection is one of the key issues to face when designing a biometric based authentication system. In fact, it is highly desirable to keep secret a template, to revoke, to cancel, or to renew a template when compromised, and also to obtain from the same biometrics different keys to access different locations, either physical or logical, in order to avoid unauthorized tracking. In this section, we analyze the different possible solutions that have been investigated in the recent past to secure biometric templates and to provide the desirable cancelability and renewability properties to the employed templates. Among them, we discuss the role that classical cryptography can play in this scenario and describe the recently introduced techniques like template distortions, biometric cryptosystems, and eventually data hiding. Cryptography. Cryptography [16] is a well-known studied solution that allows secure transmission of data over a reliable but insecure channel. Within this framework the term security is used to mean that the privacy of the message and its integrity are ensured, and the authenticity of the sender is guaranteed. However, cryptographic systems rely on the use of keys that must be stored and released on a password-based authentication protocol. Therefore, the security of a cryptographic system relies on the robustness of the password storage system with regard to brute force attacks. Moreover, the use of cryptographic techniques in a biometric-based authentication system, where templates are stored after encryption, does not solve the template security issues. In fact, at the authentication stage, when a genuine biometrics is presented to the system, the match can be performed either in the encrypted domain or in the template domain. However, because of the intrinsic noisy nature of biometric data, the match in the encrypted domain would inevitably bring to a failure, because small differences between data would bring to signi cant differences in the encrypted domain. Therefore, in order to overcome these problems, it would be necessary to perform the match after decryption, which, however, implies that there is no more security on the biometric templates. Recently, some activity is ourishing to properly de ne signal processing operations in the encrypted domain [17, 18], which could allow us, for example, to perform operations on encrypted biometric templates on nontrusted machines. However, this activity is still in its infancy and does not yet provide tools for our purposes. Template Distortions. In order to obtain cancelability and renewability, techniques that intentionally apply either invertible or noninvertible distortions to the original biometrics have been recently proposed. The distortion can take place either in the biometric domain, that is before feature extraction, or in the feature domain. The distortion can be performed using either an invertible or a noninvertible transform,
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On-Line Signature-Based Authentication
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which is chosen on the base of a user key that must be known when authentication is performed. In the case where an invertible transform is chosen, the security of the system relies on the key, whose knowledge by an adversary can reveal total or partial information about the template. On the contrary, when noninvertible transforms are used, even if the key is known by an adversary, no signi cant information can be acquired on the template. An invertible transform has been applied in [19] to face images by means of convolution with a user-de ned convolution kernel. In [20], palmprint templates are hashed by using pseudorandom keys to obtain a unique code called palmhash. In [21], user s ngerprints are projected in the Fourier Mellin domain, thus obtaining the ngerprint features, and then they are randomized using iterated inner products between biometric vectors and token-driven pseudo-number sequences. In [22], an approach similar to the one in [21] is applied to iris features. In [23], face templates are rst projected in a lower-dimensional space by using Fisher discrimination analysis and are then projected on a subspace by using a user-de ned random projection matrix. This approach has been generalized in [24] for textindependent speaker recognition. In [25], face templates undergo a random orthonormal transformation, performed on the base of a user-de ned key, thus obtaining cancelability. In [26], where the expression cancelable templates has been rst introduced, noninvertible transforms have been used. In [27], Cartesian, polar, and functional noninvertible transformations are used to transform ngerprint minutiae that are projected in the minutiae space itself. In [28], noninvertible transforms are applied to face images to obtain changeable templates, which, however, allow human inspection. In [29] a signature template protection scheme, where noninvertible transformations are applied to the functions representing users signatures, has been presented, and its noninvertibility discussed. The renewability property of the approach proposed in [29] is also discussed in [30], where two novel transforms, de ned in order to increase the number of cancelable templates generated from an original signature template, are also introduced. Therefore, when using template distortions techniques, with either invertible or noninvertible transforms, only the distorted data are stored in the database. This implies that, even if the database is compromised, the biometric data cannot be retrieved unless, when dealing with invertible transforms, user-dependent keys are revealed. Moreover, different templates can be generated from the original data, simply by changing the parameters of the employed transform. Biometric Cryptosystems. As we have already pointed out, the password management is the weakest point of a traditional cryptosystem. Many of the drawbacks risen from the use of passwords can be overcome by using biometrics. Therefore, in the recent past (see [31] for a review), some efforts have been devoted to design biometric cryptosystems where a classical password-based authentication approach is replaced by biometric-based authentication, which can be used for either securing the
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