Figure 17.13. Example Fourier power spectra for nonstressed blood pressure data. in .NET

Build qr bidimensional barcode in .NET Figure 17.13. Example Fourier power spectra for nonstressed blood pressure data.
Figure 17.13. Example Fourier power spectra for nonstressed blood pressure data.
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The Heartbeat: The Living Biometric
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Absorption Coefficient 1.5
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Hb HbO2
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Figure 17.14. Absorption of light by wavelength by the blood.
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Radiometric Sensing
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Pulse Oximeter
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Modern medical devices collect pulse oximetry data relatively easily and noninvasively [38]. The bonding of oxygen to hemoglobin affects the color properties of the blood. Speci cally, differential coloring is associated with deoxyhemoglobin (Hb) and oxyhemoglobin (HbO2 ) [39]. By illuminating the skin at the appropriate wavelengths (660-nm red light and 805-nm near-infrared light) and measuring the two signals (Figure 17.14), it is possible to estimate blood oxygenation as a function of time [40, 41]. 17.2.4.2 Data Processing
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Similar to the ECG, the Fourier bandpass lter removed the major noise artifacts and the data were aligned to the ECG data using the L and P times from the ECG traces (Figure 17.15a). Again, the ECG designed lter was applied to the pulse oximeter
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Figure 17.15. (a) Raw pulse oximeter data. (b) Power spectral attributes.
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17.3 Data Collection
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data. Like the blood pressure signal, the pulse oximetry traces contain few regularly identi able ducials. Fourier power spectra attributes were generated to represent each heartbeat (Figure 17.15b).
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DATA COLLECTION
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The remainder of this chapter discusses a series of experiments that were performed to exploit the heartbeat signal for identi cation and veri cation. We highlight both processes that show promise for translating into the operational environment and the shortcomings of functions and procedures that should be avoided. This discussion provides a foundation for the next wave of researchers to improve the technology [42].
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17.3.1 Baseline Experiment: Small Sample and Large Number of Tasks
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In our original Phase 1 experiment, the data were collected from males and females between the ages of 22 and 48. Twenty-nine individuals were enrolled with 12 repeat sessions totaling 41 sessions within the data set. Each individual session contained data from a set of seven 2-min tasks. The tasks were designed to elicit different levels of mental and emotional stress. The low-stress tasks included the subject s baseline, a meditation task, and two recovery periods following high-stress tasks. The highstress tasks were reading, an arithmetic stressor, and a virtual reality driving simulation (Figure 17.16) [43]. At the time of experimentation, no existing commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) products existed to collect high-resolution information about the heart that produced an exploitable output product. Our team built specialized hardware. The hardware for this series of experiments collected data at 1000 Hz and quantized it to 12 bits, a much higher temporal resolution and bitdepth than for typical clinical instruments. The ECG data were collected at the base of the neck near the carotid artery and at the chest. The blood pressure was also acquired using the custom hardware at 1000 Hz
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Figure 17.16. Data collection protocol.
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The Heartbeat: The Living Biometric
using a pressure transducer. The pressure transducer was located on the index nger of the nondominant hand. The blood pressure signals were acquired simultaneously and synchronized with the ECG data. The pulse oximetry data were synchronized to the ECG and collected by a clinical device at 250 Hz. The Phase 1 collection sites were chosen to produce the highest-quality signals.
17.3.2 Additional Experiments: Large Sample with Simple Protocol
Four additional ECG data collection campaigns used a simpli ed protocol and a standard, FDA-approved ECG device. The result is an additional 75 subjects and 309 sessions. The ECG data were collected from the subject s forearms, slightly above the wrists. Some subject overlap exists between experiments (Table 17.2). For the collections identi ed as Phase 2 and 2b data, the subjects performed a two-task protocol: (low stress) baseline and the same arithmetic stressor that was used in the rst experiment. The clinical instrument recorded the ECG data at 256 Hz and quantized it to 7 bits. The Phase 2 versus Phase 2b designations separates sessions collected by different operators using an identical protocol. For both the cardiac patients and the long duration data sets, the subjects were in a meditative state. The same commercial ECG device was used for all additional collections. The cardiac patients data sets were collected over one, two, and three sessions. No additional pulse oximetry or blood pressure data were collected.
17.4 17.4.1