ECG Biometric for Secure and Resource-Ef cient Communications in .NET

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16.5 ECG Biometric for Secure and Resource-Ef cient Communications
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Performance and Ef ciency
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Evidently, the success of the multipoint management scheme relies on the similarities of the physiological signals at the various sensors. These are the same assumptions for the single-point key management. This fact is re ected also in the similar Hamming distance requirements for the two cases. Therefore, with respect to security, the two systems are comparable for the same session key length. More importantly, the differences involved are in the allocation of resources. With respect to spectral ef ciency, the number of transmitted bits required for the single-point case is at least the length of the cryptographic key. By contrast, since the proposed system only requires the transmitted bits for error detection, the number can be made variable. Depending on the targeted amount of con dence, the number of transmitted bits can be accordingly allocated for spectral ef ciency.
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Multipoint Management with Key Fusion
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In the system considered so far, the sole random source for key generation is the biometrics. Without requiring an external random source, a multipoint strategy has enabled a BSN to be more ef cient with respect to communication resources, at the expense of computational complexity and processing delay. This is generally a desirable setup for a BSN [11, 12]. However, in operating scenarios where the longer delays and higher computational complexity become prohibitive, it is possible to resort to an intermediate case. Suppose security requirements dictate a certain key length. Then, the key can essentially be partitioned into two components: The rst one is constructed by an external random source, while the second one is derived from the biometrics. The total number of bits generated equals the required key length. Evidently, for a system with severe bandwidth restriction, most of the key bits should be derived from the biometrics. Conversely, when transmission delay is a problem, more bits should be generated by an external source. A high-level summary of a possible key fusion approach is depicted in Figure 16.13. The key ksession is a concatenation of two components, that is, (kcomp1 , kcomp2 ). The rst component kcomp1 is distributed using fuzzy commitment, while the second kcomp2 is sent using the multi-point scheme. 16.5.2.1 Information Fusion and Independence
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In order to ensure that the overall cryptographic key is secured using mutually exclusive information, it is necessary to partition the output from the binary encoder properly. As a concrete example, let us consider generating a 128-bit key, half from a fuzzy commitment and half from a multipoint distribution, using a BCH(63,16,11) code. Then, the rst 128/2 = 64 bits from the raw binary output are used to bind the externally generated 64-bit sequence. The remaining 64 bits need to generated from the next 64/16 63 = 252 raw input bits. In other words, this scheme requires
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Electrocardiogram (ECG) Biometric for Robust Identi cation
Figure 16.13. Multipoint management with key fusion.
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waiting for 64 + 252 = 316 bits to be recorded, as opposed to 504 bits in the nonfusion multipoint case. 16.5.2.2 Key Length Control and Feedback
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From an implementation perspective, this fusion system allows a BSN to adaptively modify its key construction, depending on the delay requirements. But the disadvantage is the sensors need to be suf ciently complicated to carry out the adaptation in the rst place. For instance, additional information needs to be transmitted for proper transceiver synchronization in the key construction. Furthermore, some form of feedback is needed to adjust the key length for true resource adaption. These requirements are conceptually represented by the key length partitioner control block. It can be practically implemented by embedding additional control data bits into the transmitted sequence to coordinate the receiver. As with most practical feedback methods, there is some inevitable delay in the system adaptive response. Nonetheless, whenever implementable, a key fusion approach is the most general one, encompassing both the single-point and multipoint schemes as special cases, in addition to other intermediate possibilities.
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