PHOTODEFORMABLE MATERIALS BASED ON AZOBENZENE CONTAINING LCs in Java

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3.4. PHOTODEFORMABLE MATERIALS BASED ON AZOBENZENE CONTAINING LCs
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366 nm, 1 min (a)
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Figure 3.24. Photographs of the monodomain LCE lms with different cross-linking densities exhibiting photoinduced bending and unbending behavior. Cross-linker concentration: (a) 5 mol%, (b) 10 mol%, and (c) 50 mol%. Source: Yu et al., 2004b.
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azobenzene moiety, and the cross-linker was obtained from a tetrahydrofurane (THF) solution; then the melt complex was sandwiched between two sodium chloride (NaCl) plates with rubbing treatment to prepare hydrogen-bonded LCE lms. It was found that the lm without the azobenzene groups in the cross-links
CHAPTER 3: PHOTODEFORMABLE MATERIALS AND PHOTOMECHANICAL EFFECTS
0 366 nm >540 nm
>540 nm
366 nm
135
45
366 nm
>540 nm
>540 nm 90
366 nm
Figure 3.25. Precise control of the bending direction of a lm by linearly polarized light: photographs of the polydomain lm in different directions in response to irradiation by linearly polarized light at different angles of polarization (white arrows) at l = 366 nm; the bent lms are attened by irradiation with visible light at lW540 nm. Source: Yu et al., 2003. See color insert.
showed no deformation on exposure to UV light, whereas the lm with azobenzene cross-links bent toward the actinic light source along the alignment direction of the mesogens (Fig. 3.28). The photoinduced bending and unbending of the hydrogen-bonded lms are similar to that of the chemically bonded lms. These results indicate that a structural change caused by photoisomerization of the azobenzene moieties at the cross-links plays an important role in the photoinduced bending of the hydrogen-bonded LCE lms. In other words, it means that the cross-links formed by noncovalent bonds can convert the motion of the mesogens into a macroscopic change of the LCE lms. This kind of selfassembly LCE lms could be reconstructed through cross-link and decross-link of hydrogen bonds, and the photoinduced bending of the reformed LCE lms could be induced repeatedly. Several other interesting movements of LCEs in response to light were also reported. Palffy-Muhoray and coworkers demonstrated that the mechanical deformation of an LCE sample doped with azobenzene dyes (22a d) in response
3.4. PHOTODEFORMABLE MATERIALS BASED ON AZOBENZENE CONTAINING LCs
Aluminum plate (80 C) Hot stage Light
Film (a)
Before UV irradiation
366 nm, 3.1 s (b)
366 nm, 3.2 s
After vis irradiation
Vis (c)
Figure 3.26. (a) Experimental setup and (b) photographs of the homeotropic lm that exhibits photoinduced bending and unbending behavior. The white dash lines show the edges of the lms, and the inset of each photograph is a schematic illustration of the lm state. (c) Schematic illustration of the bending mechanism in the homeotropic lm. Source: Kondo et al., 2006.
to nonuniform illumination by visible light becomes very large (the sample bends by more than 601) (Camacho-Lopez et al., 2004). When laser beam is shone from above onto a dye-doped LCE sample oating on water, the LCE swims away from the laser beam, with an action resembling that of at sh (Fig. 3.29). Tabiryan et al. (2005) developed an azobenzene LCE lm with extraordinarily strong and fast mechanical response to the in uence of a laser beam. The direction of the photoinduced bending or twisting of LCE can be reversed by changing the polarization of the laser beam. The phenomenon is a result of photoinduced reorientation of azobenzene moieties in the LCE (Fig. 3.30). Broer and coworkers
CHAPTER 3: PHOTODEFORMABLE MATERIALS AND PHOTOMECHANICAL EFFECTS
O CH2 O
N N 20a
O CO
O CO n-C6H13
O O O CH2 O
N N 20b O CH2 O
O Rubbing direction
366 nm
>540 nm >540 nm
366 nm
(a) 366 nm: ON 50 40 Load (mN) 30 20 10 0 5.5 mWcm 2 3.5 mWcm 2
10 Time (min) (b)
Figure 3.27. (a) Photographs of the ferroelectric LCE lm that exhibits bending and unbending behavior upon alternative irradiation with UV and visible light at room temperature: the lm bent toward the actinic light source along the alignment direction of mesogens in response to irradiation at l = 366 nm, and being attened again by irradiation with visible light at lW540 nm. (b) Change of the load on the ferroelectric LCE lm when exposed to UV light at l = 366 nm with different intensities at 501C. The cross-section area of the lm is 5 mm 20 mm. An external force of 20 mN was loaded initially on the lm to keep the length of the lm unchanged. Source: Yu et al., 2007.