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0 0 5 10 15 Voltage (rms) 20 25 30
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Figure 11.19. First-order (+1) diffraction ef ciency vs. applied voltage for a grating formed in the self-assembled LC gel with 1% gelator and 5% chiral dopant. Source: Zhao and Tong, 2003. Reprinted with permission.
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CHAPTER 11: TUNABLE DIFFRACTION GRATINGS BASED ON AZO MATERIALS
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for which the helices formed by the director (orientation direction) of the LC molecules are normal to the plates of the cell. In nonirradiated areas, where brous aggregates are present, the LC should have randomly aligned helices, that is, the focal conic texture. This difference explains the initial refractive index modulation leading to the diffraction at the eld-off state. As the electric eld is applied, it destabilizes the planar texture into a disordered state (focal conic texture) as in nonirradiated areas, resulting in the drop of diffraction at B7 V. When the voltage is increased to 16 V, the electric eld is strong enough to unwind the helices and align the LC molecules along the eld direction (homogeneous texture) in irradiated areas only. LC molecules in nonirradiated areas are not aligned because of the higher threshold voltage of the cholesteric LC caused by the physical network of nano bers (Tong and Zhao, 2003). This difference results in the change from low diffraction to high diffraction. The high diffraction shows little changes until near 30 V when LC molecules in the regions with the aggregates start to align along the eld direction, which reduces the index modulation. On decrease in voltage, the diffraction switches from high to low ef ciency at B14 V, which is caused by the usual hysteresis effect of the LC. At low voltages, the initial high diffraction ef ciency is not recovered because the initial planar texture cannot be formed in irradiated areas. On subsequent voltage scans, there is only one stable switch of diffraction ef ciency at B16 V, as shown by the curve obtained during the second voltage increase in Fig. 11.19, which is associated with the transition between the focal conic and homogeneous texture of LC molecules in irradiated areas. Before switching, the low diffraction is due to the small index modulation mainly contributed by the physical network of aggregates, since the LC molecules are not aligned throughout the sample and incident light sees essentially an admixture of the ordinary (no) and the extraordinary (ne) refractive index of the LC. As the electric eld aligns the LC molecules in the irradiated area, the index modulation rises because the probe light now sees the ordinary refractive index in these regions. This interpretation is also supported by the observation that the high diffraction ef ciency shows no dependence on the polarization direction of the probe light. In essence, this electrical switchability of diffraction ef ciency is made possible by the delayed orientation of LC molecules in the gel areas because of the interaction with the brous aggregates. The reason for which cholesteric LC is used is that the effect of the physical network on the threshold voltage is more important for cholesteric LCs than for nematic LCs. For instance, grating can also be recorded with the LC gel prepared from pure BL006 (with no chiral dopant), but the sharp increase in diffraction ef ciency occurs only over a narrow range of voltages (B2 V) before dropping to the low level, because of the similar threshold voltages of BL006 with and without the network of the gelator. Figure 11.20 shows the dynamic behavior of the electrically switchable diffraction grating formed in the LC gel with 1% gelator and 2% chiral dopant (period B40 mm). The repeated switching of the rst-order (+1) diffraction ef ciency between 0 and 20 V of an applied square-wave electric eld (10 s duration for eld-off and eld-on states) is relatively stable (Fig. 11.20a). Moreover, the change in diffraction ef ciency in response to a pulse wave of
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