Other Applications of Azobenzenes in Java

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1.2.6. Other Applications of Azobenzenes
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Using Barcode Control SDK for Java Control to generate, create, read, scan barcode image in Java applications. Photoswitches. As already pointed out, the azo isomerization can be used to photoswitch a wide variety of other properties (at numerous size scales). In addition to the optical changes already described, it is worth noting that the transient change in material refractive index (owing to the different n of cis and trans) can itself act as a photoswitch (Barley et al., 1991). The azo photochromism
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has even been suggested as a possible optical neural network element (Sumaru et al., 1999). Binding and transport properties can also be photoswitched (Weh et al., 1998; Anzai and Osa, 1994). In some systems the redox potential and ionic conductivity can be switched with light (Willner and Willner, 1997). Crown ethers (Zawisza et al., 1999; Tokuhisa et al., 1994) and calixarenes (Reynier et al., 1998) functionalized with azobenzene can be used as reversible ion-binding systems. Thus, ion transport can be photoregulated. In other cases, the transport properties can be photocontrolled not via binding but on the basis of changes in pore sizes (Sata et al., 2000; Abraham and Purushothaman, 1998; Kano et al., 1980). In a particularly elegant example, the size of nanochannels could be modi ed by irradiating azo ligands that decorate the channel walls (Liu et al., 2004). Azoderivatized gramicidin ion channels represent a unique case where ion transport can be photocontrolled by the optical manipulation of a biomolecule (Lien et al., 1996). In addition to obvious applications in controlled transport, this offers the possibility of studying cells by controlling the timing of ion exchange processes. Photoinduced catalysis is also possible, for instance, using molecules where only the cis form is catalytically active (Wuerthner and Rebek, 1995). Extension of the molecular imprinting technique to azo polymers allows for photoswitching of binding activity with respect to the imprinted molecule (Minoura et al., 2004). Photoprobes. The properties of an azo chromophore (spectrum, isomerization kinetics, etc.) depend strongly on the local environment. This enables the possibility of using the chromophore as a molecular sensing element: a photoprobe. For instance, it has been found that many azo properties depend on local H+ concentration, to the extent that the azo can in fact be used as a pH meter (Uznanski and Pecherz, 2002; Mermut and Barrett, 2001). As mentioned earlier, the isomerization kinetics can also be used as a probe of free volume (Naito et al., 1993; Lamarre and Sung, 1983), local aggregation (Norman and Barrett, 2002), or phase transitions. The azo molecule is small and exhibits clean photochemistry, which makes it more versatile and robust than many other photoprobes. The rate of isomerization is also remarkably insensitive to temperature (Yamamoto, 1986), yet sensitive to local solvent conditions (Li et al., 2006; Norman and Barrett, 2002). This is an area of research that deserves considerably more attention. In a more sophisticated example, azo chromophores were used to monitor protein folding (Bredenbeck et al., 2003; Sporlein et al., 2002). Speci cally, femtosecond 2-D IR spectroscopy was used to monitor the distances between carbonyl groups in the peptide. An azo chromophore, incorporated inside the polypeptide chain, was used as a photoswitch to initiate a conformational change, hence initiate protein folding, on demand. Combined with time-resolved monitoring of the azo spectrum, this allows the deconvolution of folding dynamics. Pumpprobe ultrafast laser pulse experiments are being used to study many different chemical reactions, but are obviously limited to reactions that can be triggered by light. Incorporating azobenzene into the experiment allows a wider range of reactions to be phototriggered.
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Using Barcode recognizer for Java Control to read, scan read, scan image in Java applications. Optical Data Storage. The azos have been investigated as optical storage media for some time. Early proofs of principle were on Langmuir Blodgett lms, using photochromism (Liu et al., 1990) or birefringence (Dhanabalan et al., 1999). Increasingly, amorphous polymer systems are being recognized as promising materials. In these easily processed systems, the birefringence is strong, stable, and switchable, making them ideal for optical memories. A single domain could encode one bit by either being isotropic or birefringent, a difference that is easily probed optically. The Dn values are large enough, in fact, that a gray-level algorithm could be used, where each domain stores more than one bit of data. On the negative side, the photoalignment generated in the direction of the read write beam leads to an effective loss of material performance with time. Full anisotropy could be restored with heat, however (which can be local and photoinduced, with appropriate device setup). The feasibility of storing B30 GB of data on a single layer of a removable disk using this gray-level approach has been demonstrated (Hagen and Bieringer, 2001). Even the fastest photoinduced birefringence in azo systems requires milliseconds and is slow compared with most computer timescales. However, optical data storage is amenable to gray-level read write (Sabi et al., 2001) and to storing retrieving full 2-D pages of data at a time. In principle, azo systems could achieve high data storage and retrieval speeds. The full 3-D volume of a material can be used by encoding many layers of 2-D data (pages) one on top of the other (Kawata and Kawata, 2000; Ishikawa et al., 1998). This is accomplished by moving the optical focal plane through the material. An intriguing possibility for high density storage is to use angular multiplexing (Hagen and Bieringer, 2001). By storing multiple superimposed holograms in a single material, the data density is increased dramatically, and the whole 3-D volume of the material is exploited (Ramanujam et al., 2001). Volume-phase holograms in azo systems can have diffraction ef ciencies greater than 90% (Zilker et al., 1998), making data readout robust. The hologram is encoded by interfering a reference beam and a writing beam inside the sample volume, at a particular angle. The write beam, having passed through a spatial light modulator (SLM), has a pattern corresponding to the data, which is then holographically encoded in the sample. The entire page of data is written at once. By selecting different angles, new pages of data can be written. To readout a page, the azo sample is set at the correct angle and illuminated with the reference beam. The resulting diffraction pattern is imaged on a charge-coupled device (CCD) array, which measures the encoded beam pattern (data). The volume of data and transmission rate is clearly large: projections of B1000 GB in a single disk have been made. Since the entire hologram image is stored throughout the material, the technique is fairly insensitive to dust, scratches, and pinpoint defects. The use of azo-substituted peptide oligomers appears to enable control of the order, hence optimization for holographic applications (Berg et al., 1996). Optical memories would be considerably enhanced by using two-photon processes. This allows the addressable volume to be smaller and better de ned, while reducing
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