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Figure P.4. Architecture of MAC layer with channel state feedback.
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physical and MAC layer design, with focus on improving system performance by taking advantage of the time-varying throughput delivered by the adaptive physical layer. We characterize system performance as a utility function of the throughputs achieved by all the active users. Depending on the forms of the utility function, we can have different emphasis on system performance. For example, we may focus on system capacity (where the utility function is the sum of average user throughput) for better resource utilization. We may also wish to strike a compromise between resource utilization and fairness among users, and we may set the utility function to be proportionally fair. In any case, priority should be given to users with good channel conditions because such users could utilize the limited radio resource more effectively (enjoying a highly throughput due to the adaptive physical layer). Therefore, we could always nd good users at any time to transmit at high-throughput modes, and as a result, the overall multiuser system capacity is greatly enhanced. This is called multiuser selection diversity. Routing Layer. Ad hoc network is important for mobile devices due to its robustness with respect to hostile propagation environment. While traditional table-based or on-demand routing protocols can be used, it is much more ef cient to use a routing protocol that is channel-adaptive judiciously selecting links that can transmit at higher data rates to form a route. Devising channel-adaptive routing protocols is a very hot eld. We shall provide a detailed survey of existing techniques. We also describe a reactive ad hoc routing algorithm, called RICA (receiver-initiated channel-adaptive) protocol, to intelligently utilize the multirate services (based on different modulation schemes). NS-2 simulation results show that the RICA protocol is highly effective. In conclusion, channel adaptation technologies can bene t all the three layers described above. However, one fundamental requirement for channel adaptation is the knowledge of channel state information (CSI) at the transmitter. In frequency-division duplexing (FDD) systems, the CSI is estimated at the receiver and fed back to the transmitter. In time-division duplexing (TDD) systems, the CSI of the downlink can be estimated on the basis of the uplink pilots. In either case, obtaining perfect knowledge of CSI at the transmitter is not feasible, and in practice, there is always some imperfection associated with the CSI knowledge at the transmitter. For example, in FDD systems, the feedback link usually has a limited capacity and this results in limited feedback. In TDD systems, the uplink pilot power transmitted by the mobiles is usually limited and therefore the CSI estimation noise at the base station side is not negligible. This situation is aggregated by the presence of multiple antennas because the CSI becomes a matrix of nR nT dimensions. Hence, a signi cant portion of the book is devoted to addressing this practical concern channel adaptation and cross layer design in the presence of imperfect CSI.
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Audience This is a graduate-level book intended for readers who are graduate-level research students and would like to know more about the theory and practice of channel-adaptive wireless communication technologies. This book assumes that the reader has a solid background in basic communication theory and information theory as well as queueing theory.
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Organization of the Book This book is organized into three parts. In Part 1, we shall focus on the theoretical aspects of channel adaptation in wireless communications for point-topoint and multiuser systems with multiple antennas. In Part 2, we shall focus on the applications of the channel-adaptive technologies in practical systems such asUMTS. In Part 3, we shall focus on some advanced topics such as multiuser scheduling for wideband systems, combined queueing theory, and information theory as well as ad hoc routing. Part 1. 1 discusses the basic and fundamental theories behind SISO/MIMO communications. It addresses the channel capacity as well as spacetime code design for SISO/MIMO physical layer. Readers with a strong background in communication theory and information theory can skip 1. 2 discusses the optimal transmission adaptation strategy and feedback strategy for a point-to-point multiantenna communication link with perfect CSI knowledge based on the information-theoretic approach. The notion of ergodic capacity and outage capacity will be elaborated and the design insights from the results will be discussed. 3 extends the discussion in 2 to consider the optimal transmission and feedback strategies in the presence of imperfect CSI. 4 gives the practical design considerations of adaptive physical layers based on the theories developed in 2. Speci cally, we shall elaborate on spacetime coding and decoding techniques that could achieve spatial diversity and spatial multiplexing, respectively. The optimal MIMO transmitter and receiver architectures in fast fading and slow fading channels will be discussed. The fundamental tradeoff between spatial diversity and spatial multiplexing is elaborated. Finally, the design of adaptation thresholds, modulation levels, and encoding rates in a MIMO link is discussed. 5 extends the discussions in 4 to consider the case with imperfect CSI. Speci cally, we shall focus on the constellation and coding design for MIMO link with imperfect CSIR. 6 addresses the optimal adaptive MIMO multiuser scheduling design. This is an extension of s 2 and 3 (which address the adaptive MIMO link) to a multiuser scenario. Speci cally, we shall focus on the capacity and coverage performance gains as a result of cross-layer adaptation. Cross-layer scheduling is formulated as an optimization problem, and the
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