Broadcast of CSI Checking Packets in .NET

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Broadcast of CSI Checking Packets
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Because the channel quality between two devices is a time-varying function, the throughput of the route to the destination also changes all the time. Thus, the primary goal of the RICA algorithm is to maintain a route between a communicating source destination pair such that the highest throughput is achieved. Essentially, to attain this goal, a route will have to be updated, possibly frequently, according to the changing channel conditions. Our approach is to let the destination device broadcast a CSI checking packet periodically. Note that the period depends on the coherence time of the shadowing conditions, and typically 3 4 s is acceptable for pesdestrian mobility. The CSI checking packet, acting as a probe, is used for measuring the CSI of every link that it has traversed. Thus, an updated CSI-based hop distance can be obtained. During the lifetime of a communication session, the source could receive several CSI checking packets periodically from the destination and thus, can update the route accordingly. We explain this process in more detail with the help of Figure 12.1d,e.
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Note that each device knows to which of its upstream neighbors it should forwarding the RREP, from the intermediate device list in that RREP.
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First, the destination device generates a CSI checking packet that includes the type of packet, source address, destination address, hop count and hop distance eld (the latter is CSI-based and both are initialized to zero), time-tolive (TTL) eld, and checking packet ID. Whenever the destination broadcasts a new CSI checking packet within the same communication session, the checking packet ID is increased by one. The TTL eld is used for limiting the broadcast scope of the packet because exhaustive ooding should be avoided to save bandwidth. Speci cally, the TTL eld is set to the originally known hop count (not based on CSI) of the path plus one. Every time the packet is rebroadcast, the TTL eld is decremented. When TTL becomes zero, the checking packet is discarded. The destination rst broadcasts the CSI checking packet to its neighboring devices. When a neighbor device receives the checking packet, it updates several elds of the packet as follows. First, it measures the CSI of the link from which the checking packet is transmitted and computes the hop distance based on the measured CSI. Then it resets the hop count to the original value plus one, decrements the TTL, and relays the checking packet to its neighbors. On the basis of the received checking packet, an intermediate device also sets up a forwarding route entry, including source and destination IDs, route entry ID, and downstream device, which is the device from which the intermediate device receives the checking packet. This implies that the forwarding route entry points to the device from which the checking packet is transmitted. The route entry ID is equal to the value of the CSI checking packet ID. The forwarding route entry also has a lifetime that is set to the broadcast period of the CSI checking packet. After the lifetime has elapsed, the forwarding route entry is deleted. Note that within the same CSI checking process, an intermediate device relays a CSI checking packet only once because further received copies are simply discarded. The checking packet is also discarded if it comes from a link in deep fading (e.g., with only 1 Mbps of effective bandwidth). Moreover, as in the route discovery process, a device under a heavy traf c load does not forward the CSI checking packet but simply discards it. Eventually, the source device receives several checking packets from all possible routes as shown in Figure 12.1d; then the source device selects the shortest path and uses it to replace the original route. For example, in Figure 12.1d, there are three candidate routes with hop distances 8.5, 17.5, and 14, respectively. The source device can then choose the shortest one (the top one that has a hop distance of 8.5) by using a route update packet. The route update packet includes the following elds: type of packet, source address, destination address, hop count, update sequence number, and route entry ID. The updated sequence number is used to identify a new route update from the source to destination and increases monotonically in the course of successive updating. On receiving the route update packet, the downstream device updates its routing table by setting the next device to the same destination as the one in its forwarding route entry (i.e., the downstream device in the entry) and then passes the route
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