CHANNEL-ADAPTIVE AD HOC ROUTING in .NET

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CHANNEL-ADAPTIVE AD HOC ROUTING
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12.1 OVERVIEW
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Ad hoc routing is important for mobile devices due to its robustness in hostile radio propagation environment. While traditional table-based or on-demand routing protocols can be used, it is much more ef cient to use a routing protocol that is channel-adaptive judiciously selecting links that can transmit at higher data rates to form a route. However, devising channel-adaptive routing protocols is still largely unexplored. In this chapter, we describe a reactive ad hoc routing algorithm, the RICA (receiver-initiated channel-adaptive) protocol, to intelligently utilize the multirate services (based on different modulation schemes). Our NS-2 simulation results show that the RICA protocol is highly effective compared with non-adaptive designs.
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BACKGROUND
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Wireless LANs, based on the IEEE 802.11b standard, are becoming ubiquitous because of the almost seamless integration with wireline Ethernet LANs. Nevertheless, it is widely envisioned that a huge potential of wireless networking is yet to be realized until we can deploy a robust and large-scale ad hoc mobile computing network. In an ad hoc network, devices join and leave the network at will and in a totally asynchronous manner. Thus, such a wireless network can provide truly anytime anywhere computation because of its robustness and inherent fault tolerance. In addition, many peer-to-peer applications such as location-based services can be supported in such a
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Channel-Adaptive Technologies and Cross-Layer Designs for Wireless Systems with Multiple Antennas: Theory and Applications. By V. K. N. Lau and Y.-K. R. Kwok ISBN 0-471-64865-5 2006 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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CHANNEL-ADAPTIVE AD HOC ROUTING
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network [34,128,129]. However, to make such an ad hoc mobile computing network feasible, we have to meet a number of challenges related to wireless infrastructure problems. Most notably, for example, when the devices in an IEEE 802.11b wireless LAN are operating in a peer-to-peer manner (i.e., invoking the distributed coordination function) to form an ad hoc mobile computing system [29,121,152], we need to tackle the problem of nding optimized ad hoc routes to enable point-to-point communications between two devices that are possibly out of each other s range. There are two major classes of ad hoc routing protocols, namely, on-demand and table-based [34,90]. As many researchers have pointed out [21,34,61,86], table-based algorithms are notoriously inef cient in that they require periodic update of the routing information stored in the routing tables even when there is no data traf c. On the other hand, as compared with on-demand algorithms, its merit is that the setup delay for a data transfer is expected to be shorter because a route is presumably stored in the table for use. However, when the actual data transfer is to take place, such a route may no longer exist or may be unusable for at least two reasons: (1) because of the mobility of the mobile devices in the network, their geographic locations may have changed when a data transfer is required, rendering a previously setup route useless; or (2) the quality of the channels among the mobile devices may be inevitably timevarying (due to shadowing and fast fading [109]) and thus, the links in a route may no longer be usable even if the geographic locations do not change much. In our study, we consider mainly on-demand routing algorithms for ad hoc networks but also examine the effectiveness of one table-based protocol. In particular, we are interested in studying the behavior and performance of routing protocols when the time-varying nature of wireless channels is taken into account. Indeed, because the IEEE 802.11b standard [4] also provides multirate services with different rates supported by different modulation schemes, it is useful to dynamically change routes by selecting links that can use higherbandwidth modulation schemes. In this chapter, we describe a new ad hoc routing algorithm for an IEEE 802.11b based wireless LAN operating in the ad hoc mode (i.e., using the distributed coordination function without any centralized access point). Our algorithm, called receiver-initiated channel-adaptive (RICA) routing, works by proactively changing routes through judicious selection of links that can support higher data rates. After reviewing some state-of-the-art ad hoc routing techniques in Section 12.3, the features and design considerations of the RICA protocol are detailed in Section 12.4. To illustrate the effectiveness of the RICA protocol, we extensively tested it in a simulated IEEE 802.11b wireless LAN environment using the well-known NS-2 platform [105] and compared it with three well-known protocols AODV (ad hoc on-demand distance vector) [112], DSDV (destination-sequenced distance vector) [110], and DSR (dynamic source routing) [62] protocols that are not channeladaptive. The results are described in Section 12.5. Section 12.6 concludes this chapter.
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