PACKET-SWITCHED DATA SERVICES IN W-CDMA SYSTEMS in .NET

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PACKET-SWITCHED DATA SERVICES IN W-CDMA SYSTEMS
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Figure 9.12. A summary of transport channel mappings in UMTS.
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Figure 9.12 summarizes the mapping of transport channels to physical channels in UMTS systems. 9.2.3 MAC Layer
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The MAC layer in the UMTS protocol stack is a very important component in that it serves many purposes:
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Mapping logical channels to transport channels Choosing suitable transport format for each transport channel based on the instantaneous source data rate Managing priority in a set of data traf c ows within each UE Managing priority among different UEs using dynamic scheduling techniques Identifying speci c UEs on the common transport channels Marshaling of data PDUs between transport block sets and the underlying physical layer dedicated channels Measuring and monitoring of traf c volume Ciphering for transparent mode RLC Choosing access service class for RACH and CPCH sessions
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As shown in Figure 9.13, the MAC layer can be divided into four major components: MAC-d, MAC-c/sh, MAC-b, and MAC-hs. MAC-d is responsible
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UMTS ARCHITECTURE
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BCCH
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PCCH BCCH CCCH CTCH
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SHCCH
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DCCH DTCH DTCH
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MAC-d
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MAC-b
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HS-DSCH Associated downlink signalling Associated uplink signalling
PCH FACH FACH RACH CPCH USCH USCH DSCH DSCH
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(FDD only) (TDD only) (TDD only)
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BCCH PCCH BCCH CCCH CTCH SHCCH
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MAC-d MAC-d
Configuration with MAC-c/h Configuration with MAC-c/h Configuration with MAC-c/h
MAC-b
MAC-hs
MAC-c/sh
HS-DSCH Associated downlink signalling Associated uplink signalling
PCH FACH
FACH RACH CPCH USCH USCH DSCH DSCH
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(b) Figure 9.13. Three components of the MAC layer in each UE (a) and in (b) the UTRAN.
for handling dedicated channels and resides at the serving RNC (S-RNC).5 MAC-c/sh is responsible for handling the common and shared channels. MACb is responsible for handling the broadcast channel. BothMAC-c and MAC-b reside at the controlling RNC (C-RNC).6 MAC-hs is a high-speed extension of the MAC layer in HSDPA and is responsible for the high-speed DSCH transport channel. Unlike the other MAC components, the MAC-hs resides at node B to facilitate fast scheduling. 9.2.4 RLC Layer
The major role of the RLC layer is to provide segmentation and retransmission functions for the logical channels offered by the MAC layer; it resides at
The S-RNC is the anchor point with respect to a UE when the call is set up. As the mobile moves to other node Bs, the S-RNC will not be changed unless the S-RNC relocation procedure has been executed. With respect to a UE, the S-RNC is unique. 6 Each node B has a unique RNC, and this is the C-RNC.
PACKET-SWITCHED DATA SERVICES IN W-CDMA SYSTEMS
AM SAP
Tr-SAP
UM SAP
RLC control Acknowledged mode entity Transmitting transparent entity Receiving transparent entity Transmitting unacknowledged entity Receiving unacknowledged entity
DTCH/DCCH
BCCH/PCCH/CCCH/ DCCH/DTCH
CCCH/CTCH/DTCH/DCCH
Figure 9.14. The architecture of the RLC layer.
the S-RNC. There are three different operation modes: transparent mode (Tr), unacknowledged mode (UM), and acknowledged mode (AM). The architecture of the RLC layer is shown in Figure 9.14. We can see that Tr and UM modes are characterized as unidirectional, and AM mode is featured as bidirectional. The Tr mode offers basic service data unit (SDU) transfer, segmentation and reassembly, and SDU discard and does not add any protocol overhead to higher-layer SDUs. Speci cally, corrupted SDUs are either discarded or marked as erroneous. Segmentation and reassembly are optional features in the Tr mode. If segmentation is not con gured in the RLC layer, the SDU from the upper layers is used as the protocol data unit (PDU) to the MAC layer. On the other hand, if segmentation is con gured, the packet length of the SDU received from the upper layers must be an integer multiple of the PDU length so that segmentation is done without any RLC overhead. This mode is useful for realtime applications, such as streaming or conversational applications, where low-overhead logical channel is needed. The UM mode offers concatenation, padding, ciphering, and sequence number checking in addition to the services offered by the Tr mode. It does not offer retransmission function and as such, data delivery is not guaranteed. Consequently, corrupted data PDUs are either marked or discarded depending on the system con guration. Unlike the Tr mode, RLC protocol overhead is added in the UM mode to facilitate concatenation, padding, ciphering, and sequence number checking. For instance, the UM mode is used for certain RRC signaling procedures, whereas only a unidirectional logical channel is required and there are acknowledgment and retransmission procedures de ned in the RRC signaling already. In the AM mode, an ARQ (automatic repeat request) mechanism is employed for error correction. Figure 9.15 shows the components and mechanisms involved in theAM mode. We can see that the transmitting party of the AM-RLC entity receives RLC SDUs from upper layers via the AM-SAP. These RLC SDUs are then segmented (in case of a large SDU) into xed-