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[14,32,46,50,57,74,107,141]. In Section 9.3, we discuss the design of the macroscopic scheduling mechanism in the UMTS Rel 99. In Section 9.4, we focus on the microscopic scheduling mechanism in the HDSPA systems.
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UMTS ARCHITECTURE
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A high-level view of the UMTS architecture is shown in Figure 9.1. We can see that the UMTS architecture is divided into three main components: user equipment (UE), UTRAN (UMTS terrestial radio access network), and core network (CN). Following the GSM architecture, UE is a mobile device consisting of a subscriber identi cation module (SIM) and a wireless transceiver with the appropriate air interface equipment (WCDMA in this case). UTRAN is responsible for handling all radio-related functionalities. CN, adopted from the GSM architecture for easy migration of technology, is responsible for switching and routing calls or data connections to and from external networks such as ISDN, PSTN, and the Internet. In the UTRAN, the radio resource management functions such as the overload control, admission control, code allocation, outer-loop power control, soft handover, and dynamic bearer recon gurations are reside primarily in the RNC. Node B is responsible for the physical layer processing over the air such as channel coding, interleaving, rate adaptation, and spreading. Manifested as a base station (BS), a node B also handles inner-loop power control and diversity combining for softer handover between different sectors of node B. In
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Node B User equipment (UE) Node B
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Figure 9.1. A high-level view of the UMTS architecture, composed of the user equipment (UE), radio network controller (RNC), node B, home location register (HLR),visitor location register (VLR), mobile switching center (MSC), gateway MSC, serving GPRS support node (SGSN), and gateway GPRS support node (GGSN).
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Rel 5, it is also responsible for fast scheduling, as detailed in Section 9.4. Each RNC is designated to handle multiple node Bs, and there can be multiple RNCs in a UTRAN. Node B and RNC are connected using xed-line transmission facilities such as ATM, and the connection is de ned as the Iub interface. The RNC may also be interconnected with each other, and the connection is de ned as the Iur interface. Besides offering higher physical bit rate over the air, the UMTS system is differentiated from the 2.5G systems (such as GPRS) in the quality-of-service (QoS) dimension as well. For instance, UMTS offers four QoS classes over the wireless interface, and the QoS differentiation is enforced at the RNC as well. In the CN, the primary role is to support the switching of circuit-switched connections as well as packet-switched connections. Unlike the GSM or IS-95, UMTS offers both circuit-switched services and packet-switched services. However, there is an implicit challenge in the design of the core network in UMTS. On one hand, the target public network of the circuit switched service is essentially the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN), which is based on circuit switching architecture. On the other hand, the target public network of the packet-switched service is essentially the Internet, which is based on the packet-switching architecture. Hence, a fundamental issue on the core network design of UMTS system is whether it should be circuit-switched or packetswitched. In Rel 99, an overlay approach is adopted. Basically, the core network has two layers: the circuit-switched layer and the packet-switched layer. In the circuit-switched layer, it consists of the mobile switching center (MSC), which is the core element for mobility management, authentication, and switching of users calls. The CN is connected to the PSTN via the gateway MSC (GMSC) over the PCM-64 payload interface and SS7 signaling interface, respectively. In the packet-switched layer, it consists of serving GPRS support node (SGSN) and gateway GPRS support node (GGSN). Both the SGSN and GGSN are IP routers with additional functionality such as mobility management, authentication, and data encryption for packet-switched services. The CN is connected to the public Internet via the GGSN, which routes the IP packets between the UMTS CN and the Internet. In addition to the switching elements in the CN, there are distributed databases to support user mobility and supplementary services such as call forwarding, namely, the home location register (HLR) and the visiting location register (VLR). HLR is a database for storing the master copy of a user s service pro le, which includes the user s service speci cations and dynamic status information such as call forwarding details. VLR is a database for storing a visiting user s service pro le. UMTS is an evolving standard. The abovementioned architecture is the basic structure as speci ed in UMTS standard Rel 99. More recent releases are Rel 4 and Rel 5 (as such, Rel 99 is retrospectively called Rel 3 ). The major addition in Rel 4 is the speci cation of using ATM for QoS (quality-ofservice) control inside the CN. On the other hand, in Rel 5, an all-IP-based network is speci ed for use inside the CN. In other words, a single IP-based