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TABLE 8.1. Fairness CIF
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Qualitative Comparison of Fairness Notions Short-Term Short-term fairness is maintained only among sessions with perfect channel states; neither outcome fair nor effort fair is considered for sessions with not so good channel states Outcome fair is maintained among sessions with channel states better than a prede ned threshold Short-term fairness is not precisely maintained Short-term fairness (normalized by channel states) is maintained among all the sessions unless the session has the worst channel state; a compromise is achieved in attaining outcome fair and ef cient bandwidth usage Long-Term Outcome fair, provided the sessions are under homogeneous error characteristics in the long run Not precisely de ned Not precisely de ned Outcome fair, provided the sessions are under homogeneous error characteristics in the long run
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average delay of the system will be adversely affected. Thus, the punish factor can be used to tune the utilization of system resources. 8.4.5 Comparison with Other Fairness Notions
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The comparison among different existing fairness notions is summarized in Table 8.1.
8.5 8.5.1
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WIRELESS PACKET SCHEDULING ALGORITHMS Idealized Wireless Fair Queueing (IWFQ)
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IWFQ uses WFQ for its error-free service. Each arriving packet is tagged as in WFQ, and the service tag for a ow is set to the nish tag of its head-ofline packet. Among the ows that can transmit, namely, backlogged ows with an error-free channel, the ow with the least service tag is picked and the headof-line packet is transmitted. IWFQ also simulates error-free service for identical arrivals. The lead of a leading ow is the difference between the service tag of the ow and that of the ow in the error-free simulation, upper-bounded by a per ow parameter. The lag of a lagging ow is the difference between the service tag of the ow in the error-free simulation and that of the ow in the real system, upper-bounded by Bri, where B is the scheduler parameter and ri is the normalized weight of the ow (i.e., Sri = 1). The compensation model implicitly favors channel access for lagging ows. Since the precedence of tags is maintained, a lagging ow has a low service
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CHANNEL-ADAPTIVE WIRELESS FAIR SCHEDULING
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tag and captures the channel whenever it perceives an error-free channel. Among lagging ows with clean channels, the ow with the lowest tag gets to transmit until either it perceives a dirty channel or its nish tag is greater than that of some other ows with clean channels. This compensation model guarantees that lagging ows will catch up (compensate for) their lag but may starve out leading ows in the short term. 8.5.2 Channel-Condition-Independent Fair Queueing (CIFQ)
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CIFQ uses start-time fair queueing (STFQ) as the error-free service. STFQ is dV an approximation of WFQ that eliminates the computation complexity by dt setting V(t) to the start tag of the transmitting packet. As in IWFQ, CIFQ simulates an error-free service. The lag of a ow is the difference in service between the error-free service and the real service (i.e., lead is negative lag). A ow is considered to be active if it is either leading or backlogged. The error-free service is applied among all active ows. If a backlogged leading ow is allocated a slot, it relinquishes the slot with a probability of a (a system parameter). If an nonbacklogged leading ow is allocated a slot, it relinquishes the slot. A relinquished slot is allocated to the lagging ow with the maximum normalized lag. Lagging ows receive additional service only when leading ows relinquish slots. These relinquished slots are given to the lagging ow with the maximum normalized lag where the normalization is done using the rate weight of a ow. As a result of this compensation policy, in-sync ows are not disturbed if lagging ows can receive the additional service, and leading ows degrade their service gracefully. However, in pathological cases, a lagging ow may capture the channel as in IWFQ and starve out other ows. 8.5.3 Server-Based Fairness Approach (SBFA)
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SBFA provides a generic framework for adapting different service disciplines to the wireless domain, although the properties satis ed by the service discipline in the wireline domain may not be translated to the wireless domain. SBFA reserves a fraction of the channel bandwidth statically for compensation by specifying a virtual compensation ow. If a backlogged ow is allocated a slot but cannot transmit because of channel errors, it enqueues a slot request in the compensation ow. The error-free service serves the compensation ow along with the other packet ows. When the compensation ow is allocated a slot, it hands over the slot to the ow to which its head-of-line slot request belongs. SBFA does not have the concept of a leading ow. The lag of a lagging ow is the number of slot requests in the compensation ow. Since compensation ow is treated like any other ow by the error-free service, in-sync ows are not affected. However, when there are also slots in
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