PERFORMANCE COMPARISONS in .NET

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PERFORMANCE COMPARISONS
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LDF LQF PF CAF UTIL ROPT 0 1 2 3 4 5 Number of SCHs 6 7 8
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(b) Figure 7.17. Downlink link coverage area as a function of the number of SCHs allocated, with adjacent-cell loads of (a) 50% and (b) 75%.
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sion probabilities of all schemes are not close to 1 even when the data users are very near the base station. This is because in CAF, PF, LQF, and LDF, a data user with a very good position and (hence) very good channel condition does not necessarily get allocated. For example, if it happens that a severely lagging user encounters a good channel state, an even better user (in terms of channel state) may not be allocated any SCH because the latter may be leading by a large margin. The results for a heavy background load environment show similar trends.
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LDF LQF PF CAF UTIL ROPT 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 Distance from base station (normalized to cell radius) 1
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(b) Figure 7.18. Data request admission probabilities on the uplink, with adjacent-cell loads of (a) 50% and (b) 75%.
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Figure 7.19 shows the uplink outage probabilities of the voice users. These results are obtained by using 5 data users and varying number of voice users (from 15 to 33). We can see that even for ROPT, the voice user s QoS becomes unacceptable (cannot get service in 5% of the time) when there are about 30 voice users in the system. For other rate allocation schemes, the situation is even worse. The reason for this phenomenon is that the interference levels introduced by the data users and, more importantly, by the peer voice users, are quite high and the system capacity is reached most of the time. Thus, a
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0.2 0.18 0.16 Voice outage probability 0.14 0.12 0.1 0.08 0.06 0.04 0.02 0 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 Number of voice users LDF LQF PF CAF UTIL ROPT 30 32 34
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0 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 Number of voice users
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LDF LQF PF CAF UTIL ROPT 30 32 34
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(b) Figure 7.19. Voice outage probabilities on the uplink, with adjacent-cell loads of (a) 50% and (b) 75%.
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stable operating point of our simulated system should be around 20 voice users with 4 6 data users. Now, let us consider the user QoS aspect of the performance, in terms of average data delay and average data throughput. We use 20 voice users and vary the number of data users from 3 to 7. Moreover, we use a heavy background load of 75%. These results are shown in Figure 7.20. As expected, the average throughput of ROPT is much more higher than in the other schemes. UTIL is obviously worse than ROPT but not by a large margin. The per-
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LDF LQF PF CAF UTIL ROPT 3 4 5 Number of high-data-rate users 6 7
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LDF LQF PF CAF UTIL ROPT 3 4 5 6 Number of high-data-rate users 7
(b) Figure 7.20. Average and throughput (a) and average delay of data requests with 20 voice users and adjacent-cell load of 75%.
formance levels of CAF and PF are very similar. Finally, the performance levels of LQF and LDF are also very close. These results by and large concur with the observations that we have seen from the systemwide results (coverage, capacity, etc.). However, it is interesting to note that for the average delay, the ranking of the schemes is quite different: CAF and PF are among the best, followed by LDF, UTIL, ROPT, and nally LQF. This phenomenon was intriguing and thus, we looked at the simulation traces very carefully. We nd that the ROPT and UTIL schemes only focus on rate as they are so designed,
EXERCISES
r often generating a rate allocation vector m with many zeros: effectively, some data users do not get allocation for several burst durations. A large delay thus results for such users. On the other hand, while CAF and PF do not explicitly cater for the delay metric, the action of trying to balance the service shares among the users has the effect of controlling the delay also. Of course, for many cases, the absolute values of the delays are not as low as those best cases achieved by LDF. However, the LDF scheme seldom can allocate a high rate for the data users and thus, the gain in choosing largest delay users is frequently offset by the loss in rate. Thus, LDF does not perform well overall.