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TABLE 7.1. Parameter
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Physical Layer Parameters Value 4 8 dB 5 MHz 800 m 7.7328 Mcps QPSK modulation with quadrature spreading 14.4 kbps 14.4 kbps 1.8432 Mbps 512 [512 4] 10-2 10-4 7 dB 13 dB 20 ms 5 frames 50%, 75%
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Path loss exponent Lognormal shadowing variance Channel bandwidth Cell radius Chip rate Modulation FCH rate SCH rate Processing gain (FCH) Processing gain (SCH) BER (FCH) BER (SCH) Es /I0 (FCH) Es /I0 (SCH) Frame duration Burst duration Average adjacent cell load
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Under our system model, the six rate allocation schemes described above are evaluated by simulations. We use a seven-cell environment: a center hexagonal cell with six surrounding cells. We focus on the center cell and model the surrounding cells as background load. However, when a user is situated within the soft-handoff region (which is assumed to be at a distance of 0.9 cell radius from the base station), three neighboring cells will participate in soft handoff. In the simulation of the physical layer, we employ a path loss exponent of 4 (i.e., signals are attenuated as d-4, where d is the distance of propagation). We model the Rayleigh fast fading and lognormal shadowing (with variance of 8 dB) environments. Power control is incorporated also. The other physical layer parameters are listed in Table 7.1. We use a simple model for the mobility of the users. Each user (voice or data) selects a random starting position in the center cell, which is uniformly distributed over the cell. The direction of motion is also randomly selected. The motion is rectilinear, and a random inward direction is selected again if the user hits the boundary of the center cell. This is done to maintain the same number of users in the system throughout the whole simulation period. The speed of motion is assumed to be constant (at 35 m/h). A voice source is assumed to be continuously toggling between talkspurt and silence states. The duration of a talkspurt and a silence period are assumed to be exponentially distributed with mean 1.0 and 1.35 s, respectively. We assume that a talkspurt and a silence period start only at a frame boundary. For a high-data-rate source, we model it as generating large data les (e.g., videoclip les for mul-
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timedia messaging services). The arrival time of the le data generated by a mobile device is assumed to be exponentially distributed with mean equal to 1 s. The data size is also assumed to be exponentially distributed with mean equal to 10 kbytes. Again we assume that the data packets are generated at a frame boundary. Each test case (with a certain combination of number of voice users and number of data users) is run for 1000 s of simulation time and is repeated 10 times with different random-number seeds to obtain the average results. We consider two aspects of performance: systemwide and user QoS. For the systemwide aspect, we measure the capacity, coverage, data request admission probability, and voice outage probability. For the user QoS aspect, we measure the average delay and average throughput. We describe these performance metrics in more detail below.
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We quantify the capacity of the system as the total number of SCHs available. This is an important performance parameter for the downlink. Obviously, the capacity is limited by the power and interference constraints. Because of the power level required and because the interference generated by a user critically depends on that person s distance from the base station (e.g., path loss), the capacity of the system depends highly on the geographic distribution of the users. Coverage is a performance metric closely related to capacity, but it indicates performance from another angle. Speci cally, coverage can be de ned as the fraction of cell area in which a data user can be served. Again, this is also an important performance parameter for the downlink. Obviously, the coverage area depends on how many SCHs are to be allocated to the data user. For example, suppose that a data user is to be allocated only 1 SCH, then he/she may successfully get allocated even if he/she is situated at the boundary of the cell. On the other hand, if the user wants to get a large number of SCHs, then that may be successful only if the user is situated near the base station. Data request admission probability is de ned as the fraction of cases where a data request successfully is allocated a positive number of SCHs (note that mj may end up to be zero in the throughput optimal approach). This metric is an important performance parameter for the uplink. It should be noted that this metric also re ects the level of QoS that the system can offer to a user with respect to how often a user s data call can successfully be made. Voice outage probability is an important parameter in that admitting the requests of data users should not disturb the QoS of the existing voice users (in other words, voice service is treated as the default service that should always be available). Again, this is an important performance parameter for the uplink. The outage probability is computed by calculating the fraction of frames that a voice packet cannot be successfully transmitted because the received Es /I0 falls below the threshold (i.e.,
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