Diameter Transport and Routing Concepts in .NET

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7.2.2 Diameter Transport and Routing Concepts
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As mentioned earlier, Diameter designers defined the role of intermediary Diameter agents and proxies very carefully not to only allow for multi-domain operations but also to fix the reliability and transport issues experienced with RADIUS. In this section we will go through some of these concepts briefly.
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7.2.2.1 Diameter Transport Concepts Transport and reliability support is important part of Diameter design: the specification mandates the Diameter clients to support either TCP or SCTP, while requiring the agents and servers to support both TCP and SCTP. Due to the complexity of transport mechanisms such as fail-over, congestion control and multi-interface mechanisms, we do not go into the details of the transport requirements and recommendations for Diameter and refer the reader to the transport profile specification [AAATR3539]. Here we suffice with providing some of main concepts and their implications of Diameter messaging. Diameter specifications define two important transport concepts, namely session and connection . Understanding the distinctions made between these two concepts would help the reader to better understand the transport and routing design in Diameter specifications (Figure 7.2).
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Session is a logical concept at the application layer and is established end to end between a device and a server. A session is processed by end parties (device or server) and therefore is identified by a session ID AVP. Connection is, on the other hand, a transport level concept and is established between any two peers that send and receive Diameter messages.
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User session X Client
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Peer connection A
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Peer connection B
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Connections versus sessions in Diameter
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Note that the connection and the session may not have a direct one-to-one relationship. For instance, a user s authentication request creates a unique session, while the data for this session can be multiplexed with the data for many other sessions when carried over a single connection between each pair of peers on the path between the two end parties. On the other hand, the use of TCP or SCTP over each hop allows for detection and repair for transport failures at local level (hop by hop) at intermediary proxies. Lost packets can simply be retransmitted over that hop and avoid longer trips.
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7.2.2.2 Diameter Routing Concepts As we saw in the previous chapter, RADIUS base specifications do not provide much guidance on the operation of RADIUS proxies in multi-domain environments and roaming scenarios. The process of routing for RADIUS packets is not always clear from the RADIUS specifications. Sometimes specifications made by other standards groups (such as the roaming operation) need to be consulted. Diameter takes a long leap from that standpoint and defines the routing procedures at the Diameter nodes very clearly. We went through the definition of various Diameter nodes and agents earlier. Here we will first go through some of the major routingrelated concepts and tools as defined in Diameter base specification to help the reader understand how Diameter nodes use these tools to forward Diameter messages.
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Peer table: The Diameter peer table is used in message forwarding and is referenced by the realm routing table (described below). Each Diameter node keeps a peer table including entries on each of its peers. Each entry in the peer table includes information on the identity of the peer, useful state information, whether the peer entry is statically configured or dynamically discovered and the expiration time for the entry for this peer in the table (if the peer was dynamically discovered). Realm-based Routing table: Diameter agents consult their realm-based routing tables to forward the message towards the destination or next appropriate AAA hop that may reside in other realms. The table contains the following fields: Realm name field: This is similar to the network prefix in IP routing and is the primary key for table look-up, however, some application only require longest match rather than exact match. Application identifier fields: This is similar to host identifier in IP routing, in the sense that it is the secondary key for table look-up. The reason is that the same entry may have different destinations depending on the type of application in the session. Note that the target server must have already advertised support for that application. Location action: This field indicates whether a message is to be processed locally, relayed to next hop server, or redirected the sender.
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