AAA and Network Security for Mobile Access in .NET

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AAA and Network Security for Mobile Access
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Later RADIUS specifications [RADTUN2868] providing support for users using tunneled dial-in methods (such as Layer 2 tunneling Protocol) introduce a salt (A) in the password hiding process to provide better uniqueness when creating the first block of key stream B1 = MD5 (SS + RA + A) C1 = P1 XOR B1
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The salt, although providing better uniqueness, does not help the attacks much, since it is sent in the clear. Finally, IPsec has been suggested to protect RADIUS messaging. The use of IPsec is described in the following subsection.
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6.2.4.3 Security Vulnerabilities of RADIUS As we have seen so far, whether it comes to authenticating a message or hiding an attribute, the only cryptographic secret available for RADIUS messaging is the shared secret configured between the NAS and the RADIUS server. The use of shared secrets as the basis for providing security functions within RADIUS has caused many vulnerabilities for RADIUS deployments. In the following we list some of the most important ones.
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Static manually configured shared secrets: No method for dynamic and automatic shared secret establishment is defined in the base RADIUS protocol. The pre-shared secrets are usually manually configured at the NAS. Due to the large number of NASes involved in the many networks, there have been a large number of cases, where the technician has simply configured a large number of NASes with the same shared secret to avoid the administrative burden. Furthermore, the shared secrets are long term (typically over the life the NAS) and the specifications define no methods to refresh the shared secrets. Shared secret lookup: To prevent spoofing, the RADIUS server uses the source IP address in the RADIUS UDP packet (rather than NAS IP address or ID attributes) to look the shared secret up. This is in part due to the need for support of hop-by-hop security when RADIUS proxies are implemented and in part due to the fact that the NAS ID (an NAI or MAC address) is only added as an attribute to the access request payload. This arrangement can potentially cause many problems in cases where the NAS IP address may change. For instance, a NAS may need to obtain its IP address dynamically through DHCP as may be the case for many WLAN hotspots. Managing WLAN hotspots with large number of access points without DHCP will cause administration problems. Proxy chaining: We will talk about RADIUS proxy chaining in more detail later on. For now, it is important to know that in deployments using RADIUS proxies between the NAS and the RADIUS server, the NAS only shares a secret with the first hop AAA proxy and not with the backend RADIUS server that is the ultimate destination. This means the trust between the NAS and the RADIUS server is only transitive, i.e. the NAS communicates with the RADIUS server based on a chain of trust rather than a direct trust relationship. If a proxy in the middle is rouge, security or fraud problems may arise. Transport protection: Attribute hiding provides selective application layer protection. It does provide any security protection (authentication or encryption) for RADIUS messages or the protocol layers (UDP, IP) that these messages are riding on. This means the IP address can easily be spoofed or other attributes could be changed.
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Remote Access Dial-In User Service (RADIUS)
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6.2.4.4 RADIUS over IPsec As a way of getting around the security vulnerabilities of the use of the shared secret for RADIUS, the community has started recommended using IPsec in some of the specifications for which security is extra important. One such specification is RFC 3579 [RADEAP3579] which defines the support of RADIUS for EAP. As discussed in 3, EAP provides a key management framework that allows the AAA server to assist the user and the NAS in establishing a secure communication channel before starting data traffic. As we saw there, the key material needed at the NAS needs to be transported from the AAA server to the NAS over the AAA protocol. To provide authentication and encryption support the use of IPsec is recommended for the protection of RADIUS messaging. When non-null IPsec transforms are configured between the NAS and the RADIUS server, it is possible to skip the configuration of the RADIUS shared secret. The NAS and RADIUS server must assume that a zero length shared secret is configured in this case, specially for RADIUS servers that have no way of knowing whether the incoming traffic is protected through IPsec or not. Typically the RADIUS server applies an IPsec policy that accepts IPsec traffic but does not require IPsec-only traffic. An example of such policy would be Accept IPsec, from any to me, destination port 1812 , where UDP port 1812 is used for RADIUS authentication. This liberal policy is adequate since it is not fair to require support of IPsec at all RADIUS clients (which could be cheap access points). A typical IPsec policy at a NAS that supports IPsec would be Initiate IPsec, from me to any destination port UDP 1812 . This would cause the client to set up the IPsec SA prior to sending the IPsec traffic. The discussion above brings us to the final point on use of IPsec and that is the required key management. It is recommended that Internet Key Exchange, IKE (see 4) is used to set the required IPsec SAs between the client and the server. However, remember that the shared secret may have not been configured at the NAS and this means the NAS may need to obtain certificates for IKE phase-1 authentication.
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